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阿尔弗莱德·西斯莱Alfred Sisley

阿尔弗莱德·西斯莱(Alfred Sisley,1839-1899)1839年出生在巴黎;但其父母都是英国人,西斯莱的父亲由于经商成功,西斯莱自幼就在优越的家庭环境中成长。幼年时的西斯莱是在巴黎渡过的,18岁时西斯莱遵循父亲的期望前往伦敦习商四年,回来后在一家商行工作。可是他却喜欢钻研文学和绘画,他研究莎士比亚、透纳和康斯泰布尔。

  • 中文名阿尔弗莱德·西斯莱
  • 外文名Alfred Sisley
  • 性别
  • 国籍英国
  • 出生地巴黎
  • 出生日期1839年10月30日
  • 逝世日期1899年1月29日
  • 职业画家
  • 代表作品《鲁弗申的花园小路》
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中文介绍

传记

 

皮埃尔·奥古斯特·雷诺阿,阿尔弗雷德·西斯利和他的妻子

 

其他流。木头的边缘,1878,奥赛博物馆

西斯利富裕的英国父母出生在巴黎。他的父亲,威廉·西斯利丝绸生意,他的母亲费利西亚出售是一个培养音乐鉴赏家。

1857年,18岁的西斯利被送到伦敦攻读职业在商业,但四年后他放弃了它,并在1861年回到巴黎。从1862年开始,他在巴黎学习美术学院工作室瑞士艺术家Marc-Charles-Gabriel Gleyre,在那里他成为了熟悉弗雷德里克Bazille,克劳德·莫奈,皮埃尔·奥古斯特·雷诺阿他们一起将画风景画在练习而不是在工作室,为了现实捕捉阳光的瞬态效应。这种方法,创新,导致了更加丰富多彩的绘画和更广泛的比公众已经习了看到画。因此,西斯利和他的朋友们起初很少有机会展示或出售他们的工作。他们的作品通常都是被陪审团最重要的艺术展览在法国,每年沙龙在1860年代,西斯利比他的一些财务状况更好的艺术家,他从他的父亲收到零用钱。

1866年,西斯利开始与Eugenie Lesouezec(1834 - 1898,也称为玛丽Lescouezec),布列塔尼人居住在巴黎。这对夫妇有两个孩子:儿子皮埃尔(生于1867年)和女儿珍妮(1869)。当时,西斯利住的是克利希大道不远咖啡馆Guerbois以南的许多巴黎的画家。

1868年,他的作品被接受在沙龙,但展览没有带他的金融或关键成功;也没有后续的展览。

1870年,普法战争开始,因此西斯利的父亲的生意失败,画家的唯一手段的支持成为作品的销售。其余的他的生活他会生活在贫困中,作为他的画没有在货币价值大幅上升,直到他死后。然而,偶尔西斯利将由顾客;这让他,除此之外,做一些简短的访问英国。

第一个发生在1874年第一次独立后印象派展览。几个月在伦敦附近的结果是一系列将近二十绘画上泰晤士河附近狂奔,后来被艺术史学家肯尼斯•克拉克为“印象派的完美时刻。”

直到1880年,西斯利在巴黎西部的国家生活和工作,然后他和他的家人搬到附近的一个小村庄Moret-sur-Loing靠近枫丹白露森林的画家巴比桑画派在本世纪早些时候曾。在这里,艺术史学家安妮·波利特说,“温柔的风景与不断变化的大气是完全适应他的天赋。不像莫奈,他从不寻求横冲直撞的戏剧海洋的色彩绚丽的风景蔚蓝海岸."

1881年英国西斯利第二个短暂的航行了。

1897年西斯利和他的搭档又去了英国,终于结婚了卡迪夫8月5日注册办公室。他们呆在今年,西斯利画至少6油海和悬崖。8月中旬他们搬到奥斯本酒店朗兰湾高尔半岛,他产生了至少11油画和朗兰湾和左右威尔士湾湾(女士)。他们在10月回到法国。这是西斯利其祖国的最后一次航行。国家博物馆卡迪夫拥有两个他的油画今年和朗兰。

第二年西斯利申请法国国籍,但被拒绝了。第二个应用程序和支持的警方报告,但疾病干预,和西斯利保持英国直到他去世。

画家于1899年1月29日死亡Moret-sur-Loing59岁,几个月死后他的妻子。

工作

 

大道附近的栗子树La Celle-Saint-Cloud 1865

西斯利的学生作品丢失。他第一次山水画是忧郁的,颜色暗棕色,绿色,浅蓝色。他们经常在执行土地肥沃的对西斯利与绘画的关系j·m·w·特纳John Constable在伦敦,他可能已经看到了,但有人认为,这些艺术家可能会影响他的发展作为印象派画家,为可能古斯塔夫·及库尔贝Jean-Baptiste-Camille旋转.

 

塞纳河盟点的,1877年,博物馆安德烈。,勒阿弗尔

他的灵感来自于前现代画家的风格和主题卡米尔毕沙罗马奈[8]在印象派画家中,西斯利已经盖过了莫奈,他的工作他就像在风格和主题上,尽管西斯利更低迷的影响。艺术史学家所描述的罗伯特Rosenblum“几乎一般的人物,一个没有人情味的教科书完美印象派绘画”的想法,[10]他的作品强烈地调用气氛,他的天空总是让人印象深刻。他始终集中在景观比其他印象派画家。

在西斯利街最著名的作品是在Moret和沙堆,都拥有的芝加哥艺术学院,桥在Moret-sur-Loing显示奥赛博物馆、巴黎。Allee des peupliers de Moret(杨树巷Moret)从被偷了三次美术博物馆不错,曾经在1978年被租借在马赛(几天后恢复城市的下水道),1998年(当博物馆的馆长被判犯有盗窃和入狱五年有两个同伙),最终在2007年8月4日(2008年6月法国警方恢复它和其他三名偷画从一辆面包车在马赛)。

大量的假西斯利被发现。西斯利生产大约900油画,100彩笔和许多其他图纸。

English Introduction

Biography

Sisley was born in Paris to affluent British parents. His father, William Sisley, was in the silk business, and his mother Felicia Sell was a cultivated music connoisseur.

In 1857 at the age of 18, Sisley was sent to London to study for a career in business, but he abandoned it after four years and returned to Paris in 1861. From 1862, he studied at the Paris École des Beaux-Artswithin the atelier of Swiss artist Marc-Charles-Gabriel Gleyre, where he became acquainted with Frédéric Bazille, Claude Monet, and Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Together they would paint landscapes en plein air rather than in the studio, in order to realistically capture the transient effects of sunlight. This approach, innovative at the time, resulted in paintings more colorful and more broadly painted than the public was accustomed to seeing. Consequently, Sisley and his friends initially had few opportunities to exhibit or sell their work. Their works were usually rejected by the jury of the most important art exhibition in France, the annual Salon. During the 1860s, though, Sisley was in a better financial position than some of his fellow artists, as he received an allowance from his father.

In 1866, Sisley began a relationship with Eugénie Lesouezec (1834–1898; also known as Marie Lescouezec), a Breton living in Paris. The couple had two children: son Pierre (born 1867) and daughter Jeanne (1869).[2] At the time, Sisley lived not far from Avenue de Clichy and the Café Guerbois, the gathering-place of many Parisian painters.

In 1868, his paintings were accepted at the Salon, but the exhibition did not bring him financial or critical success; nor did subsequent exhibitions.

In 1870 the Franco-Prussian War began, and as a result Sisley's father's business failed and the painter's sole means of support became the sale of his works. For the remainder of his life he would live in poverty, as his paintings did not rise significantly in monetary value until after his death.[3] Occasionally, however, Sisley would be backed by patrons; and this allowed him, among other things, to make a few brief trips to Britain.

The first of these occurred in 1874 after the first independent Impressionist exhibition. The result of a few months spent near London was a series of nearly twenty paintings of the Upper Thames near Molesey, which was later described by art historian Kenneth Clark as "a perfect moment of Impressionism."

Until 1880, Sisley lived and worked in the country west of Paris; then he and his family moved to a small village near Moret-sur-Loing, close to the forest of Fontainebleau, where the painters of the Barbizon school had worked earlier in the century. Here, as art historian Anne Poulet has said, "the gentle landscapes with their constantly changing atmosphere were perfectly attuned to his talents. Unlike Monet, he never sought the drama of the rampaging ocean or the brilliantly colored scenery of the Côte d'Azur."

In 1881 Sisley made a second brief voyage to Britain.

In 1897 Sisley and his partner visited Britain again, and were finally married in Cardiff Register Office on 5 August.[5] They stayed at Penarth, where Sisley painted at least six oils of the sea and the cliffs. In mid-August they moved to the Osborne Hotel at Langland Bay on the Gower Peninsula, where he produced at least eleven oil paintings in and around Langland Bay and Rotherslade Bay (then called Lady's Cove). They returned to France in October. This was Sisley's last voyage to his ancestral homeland. The National Museum Cardiff possesses two of his oil paintings of Penarth and Langland.

The following year Sisley applied for French citizenship, but was refused. A second application was made and supported by a police report, but illness intervened,[6] and Sisley remained British till his death.

The painter died on 29 January 1899 in Moret-sur-Loing at the age of 59, a few months after the death of his wife.

Work

Sisley's student works are lost. His first landscape paintings are sombre, coloured with dark browns, greens, and pale blues. They were often executed at Marly and Saint-Cloud. Little is known about Sisley's relationship with the paintings of J. M. W. Turner and John Constable, which he may have seen in London, but some have suggested that these artists may have influenced his development as an Impressionist painter,[7] as may have Gustave Courbet and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot.

He was inspired by the style and subject matter of previous modern painters Camille Pissarro and Edouard Manet.[8] Among the Impressionists, Sisley has been overshadowed by Monet, whose work his resembles in style and subject matter, although Sisley's effects are more subdued.[9] Described by art historian Robert Rosenblum as having "almost a generic character, an impersonal textbook idea of a perfect Impressionist painting",his work strongly invokes atmosphere, and his skies are always impressive. He concentrated on landscape more consistently than any other Impressionist painter.

Among Sisley's best-known works are Street in Moret and Sand Heaps, both owned by the Art Institute of Chicago, and The Bridge at Moret-sur-Loing, shown at Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Allée des peupliers de Moret (The Lane of Poplars at Moret) has been stolen three times from the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Nice – once in 1978 when on loan in Marseilles (recovered a few days later in the city's sewers), again in 1998 (when the museum's curator was convicted of the theft and jailed for five years with two accomplices) and finally in August 2007 (on 4 June 2008 French police recovered it and three other stolen paintings from a van in Marseilles).

A large number of fake Sisleys have been discovered. Sisley produced some 900 oil paintings, some 100 pastels and many other drawings.

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