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威廉·莫里斯William Morris

( 工艺美术运动创始人 )

威廉·莫里斯,1834年3月24日出生于英国,沃尔瑟姆斯托19世纪英国设计师、诗人、早期社会主义活动家及自学成才的工匠。他设计、监制或亲手制造的家具、纺织品、花窗玻璃、壁纸以及其他各类装饰品引发了工艺美术运动,一改维多利亚时代以来的流行品味。1868年至1870年间出版的叙事诗集《地上乐园》,借古希腊到中世纪的传说一抒胸中块垒。他亦是拉斐尔前派的重要成员,但极少留下画作。

  • 中文名威廉·莫里斯
  • 外文名William Morris
  • 性别
  • 国籍英国
  • 民族威尔士人
  • 出生地沃尔瑟姆斯托
  • 出生日期1834-3-24
  • 逝世日期1896-10-03
  • 信仰英国国教
  • 职业艺术家 设计师,作家,社会主义者
  • 毕业院校牛津大学
  • 主要成就工艺美术运动创始人
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里奥·弗茨莫里斯获2011年度北方艺术奖

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里奥·弗茨莫里斯(LeoFitzmaurice)  2011年度北方艺术奖(NorthernArtPrize)获奖名单近日公布,以默西塞德郡为创作基地的艺术家里奥·弗茨莫里斯(LeoFitzmauri...
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人物生平

1834年3月24日威廉·莫里斯
生于英国沃尔瑟姆斯托一户富裕的中产阶级家庭,他的父亲是成功的股票经纪人。14岁时莫里斯进入莫尔伯勒学院(Marlborough College),受牛津运动影响很深。1853年他进入牛津大学埃克塞特学院(Exeter College),为当牧师而学习神学。大学时期结识了正就任牧师的爱德华·伯恩·琼斯,二人结为终身挚友并在日后一同加入拉菲尔前派。
牛津生涯使莫里斯对艺术和文学产生了浓厚的兴趣,尤为爱好中世纪的一切艺术、设计和建筑。22岁之时继承了一笔年金,借此他和伯恩-琼斯结伴在法国北部徒步旅行,遍访哥特大教堂。
返英后莫里斯伯恩-琼斯一同参与了乔治·埃德蒙大街的哥特复兴建筑工程。期间认识菲利普·韦伯,三人交好而且一起开创了工艺美术运动。莫里斯先是投身美术,但是很快就转向室内设计。
1857年经伯恩·琼斯介绍,
莫里斯前往拜会但丁·加百利·罗塞蒂,但是这位拉斐尔前派的教父对莫里斯的美术创作大加嘲讽。幸运的是认识了罗塞蒂的模特简·伯登(Jane Burden),她出身工人阶级却身体羸弱,肤色苍白又生得一头浓密的深棕色长发,被拉斐尔前派的社友们视为美的化身
。二人几经波折在1859年结为夫妻,搬入菲利普·韦伯设计的红屋。这栋新居供莫里斯和朋友们一展身手,按照中世纪风格逐一设计制造所有的家居器物及陈设,蚀刻玻璃花窗、壁画、挂毯都取法古代教堂。1861年借红屋完工之际,莫里斯决定成立合伙公司MMF,将私人兴趣发展为商业。
随着深入研究中世纪艺术和设计以及受到约翰·拉斯金学说的启发,莫里斯宣扬工匠主观能动性的天然美学作用
。他决意复兴在他看来已经几近被工业革命摧毁的手工业传统,大力鼓吹手工劳作,在其中工匠可以为自己的杰作而愉悦。
莫里斯进一步希望精美的陈设不止囿于富人,还应当进入寻常百姓家。然而这两个目标通常是矛盾的,手工制品价格远远超出机制品,莫里斯的产品一般是市面上最昂贵的。
19世纪60年代中期莫里斯全力投入壁纸设计,称为
的奠基人之一,最知名的如:棚架、雏菊与水果。棚架是莫里斯第一件壁纸设计,1864年制作,用于红屋,1865年搬出。莫里斯不能绘制小鸟,所以菲利普·韦伯为之添加了必要的小鸟。
1875年MMF公司散伙,莫里斯新建莫里斯公司,为自主生产取得全部控制权。时值创作高峰,他发展且完善了19世纪初期的众多印花纹样。最初莫里斯专注研究使用植物染料的印染,生产外包。
他结交终身好友和合作伙伴但丁·加百利·罗塞蒂(DanteGabrielRossetti)、爱德华·伯纳-琼斯(EdwardBurne-Jones)、福德·马多克斯·布朗(FordMadoxBrown)和菲利普·韦伯(PhilipWebb)。他和朋友一起创建了前拉菲尔兄弟社,抵制媚俗的装饰艺术和建筑的工业制造,倡导手工艺的回归,把工匠提升到艺术家的地位上。他认为艺术应当是平民可以承受的,手工的,艺术媒介不应有高下之分。
他有两个女儿,
简(昵称珍妮)和玛丽(梅)。
莫里斯有感1851年英国万国博览会展出之工业品过于粗糙,与鲁斯金Ruskin、普金Pugin等人主导了工艺美术运动(The Arts and Crafts Movement)而莫里斯成为美术工艺运动的主导者,大力提倡恢复手工艺品。并成立了MMF商会于伦敦红狮广场。MMF商会(Morris。Marshall,Fanlker)1861年前期专精生产新歌德样式与中世纪风格的设计,后期开始发展更为有机的风格。后期生产的家具大致分为两大类别:a.阶级家具statefurniture b.日作家具work-dayfurmiture

 

艺术设计

莫里斯于1834年3月24 日出身在埃塞克斯郡(Essex)的一个富商家庭。在17岁那年,他随母亲一道去参观1851年在伦敦海德公园举行的“水晶宫”国际工业博览会。这次博览会一方面
全面地展示了欧洲和美国工业发展的成就,另一方面也暴露了工业设计中的各种问题,从反面刺激了设计的改革。博览会的建筑——“水晶宫” 是20世纪现代建筑的先声,而“水晶宫”(图2)展出的内容却与其建筑形成了鲜明的对比,反映出一种普遍的为装饰而装饰的热情,漠视任何基本的设计原则,其滥用装饰的程度甚至超过了为市场生产的商品。莫里斯对于当时展出的展品很有反感,这件事对他日后投身于反抗粗制滥造的工业制品有密切关系。
威廉·莫里斯作为英国工艺美术运动的奠基人。是真正实现约翰拉斯金思想的一个重要设计先驱。是拉菲尔前派的主要成员。(拉菲尔前派主张回溯到中世纪的传统,手工艺传统,设计的目的是诚实的艺术)严格的来看,莫里斯并不是一个现代设计的奠基人: 因为他的探索的重点恰恰否定现代设计赖以依存的中心——工业化和机械化生产。他的目的是复兴旧时代风格,特别是以中世纪、哥特风格,他一方面否定机械化、工业化风格,另一方面否定装饰过度的维多利亚风格。他认为只有哥特式、中世纪的建筑,家具、用品,书籍、地毯等的设计才是“诚实”的设计。其他的设计风格如果不是丑陋的,也是矫揉造作的。而应该否定,推翻。只有复兴哥特风格和中世纪的行会精神才能挽救设计,保持民族的、民俗的、高品位的设计。对于他来说,无论是古典风格还是现代风格,都不足取,唯一可以依赖的就是中世纪的、哥特的、自然主义这三个来源。他强调实用性和美观性的结合,但是如何达到这个目的,对于他来说,依然是采用手工艺的方式,采用简单的哥特式和自然主义的装饰,因而,他的这个局限使他不可能成为真正现代设计的奠基人。
他反复强调设计的两个基本原则,即
1、产品设计和建筑设计是为千千万万的人服务的,而不是为少数人的活动;
2、设计工作必须是集体的活动,而不是个体劳动。
这两个原则都在后来的现代主义设计中得到发扬光大。
莫里斯的“红屋”取得了很大成功,不仅仅是采用功能需求为首要考虑,部分吸取英国中世纪、特别是哥特风格细节来设计住宅建筑,从而摆脱了维多利亚时期繁琐的建筑特点,同时还在于莫里斯从统一的方案出发,设计了整个建筑的室内、家具等等。“红屋”的建成引起设计界广泛的兴趣与称颂,使莫里斯感到社会上对于好的设计、为大众的设计的广泛需求,他希望能够为大众提供设计服务,为社会提供真正的好的设计,改变设计中流行的矫揉造作方式,反对维多利亚风格的垄断,也抵御来势汹汹的工业化风格。

设计理念

在1880--1910年间,英国掀起了一场轰轰烈烈的设计运动——工艺美术运动,这场运动以英国为中心,波及到了不少欧美国家,并对后世的设计运动产生了深远的影响。威廉·莫里斯,正是这场运动的主要推动者与领导者。
莫里斯曾在牛津大学学习神学。在那里他受到了拉斯金的设计思想的影响。拉斯金是一位作家和批评家,他通过极富雄辩和影响力的说教来宣传其思想,在反对工业化的同时,拉斯金对建筑和产品设计提出了与若干准则,比如“师承自然、忠实于传统材料”等。这些思想引导莫里斯走上了艺术与设计道路。在游历法国之后,莫里斯对哥特式建筑产生了浓厚兴趣,于是进入一家建筑师事务所学习建筑,从而开始了他的设计生涯。
莫里斯对于新的设计思想的第一次尝试是对他的新婚住宅“红屋”的装修。为了给新婚家庭购买生活用品,小商店,竟无法买到一件令他满意的家具和其它生活用品,这使他十分震惊。在几位志同道合的朋友合作下,他自己动手按自己的标准设计和制作家庭用品。在设计过程中,他将程式化的自然图案、手工艺制作、中世纪的道德与社会观念和视觉上的简洁融合在了一起。对于形式、或者说装饰与功能关系,依莫里斯看来,装饰应强调形式和功能,而不是去掩盖它们。
“红屋”建成后,莫里斯与几位好友建立了自己的商行——“莫里斯商行”,自己设计产品并组织生产。这是19世纪后半叶出现于英国的众多工艺美术设计行会的发端。尽管莫里斯与别人一道设计过家具,但他主要是一位平面设计师,即从事织物、墙纸、瓷砖、地毯、彩色镶嵌玻璃等的设计。另外,在印刷、书籍装帧设计方面,他也取得了十分突出的成就,他尤其讲究版面编排,强调版面的装饰性,通常采取对称结构,形成了严谨,朴素,庄重的风格。他的设计多以植物为题材,颇有自然气息并反映出一种中世纪的田园风味,这是拉斯金“师承自然”主张的具体体现,对后来风靡欧洲的新艺术运动产生了一定的影响作为设计革新运动的思想领袖,拉斯金将产品粗制滥造的原因归罪于机械化批量生产,因而竭力指责工业及其产品。与拉斯金一样,莫里斯认为产品的问题是与机器生产联系在一起的。但是,莫里斯并不像拉斯金那样害怕和厌恶机器,他认为劳动分工割裂了工作的一致性,因而造成了不负责任的装饰。尽管莫里斯在对待机械化及大工业生产方面有他落后的一面,但他使先前设计改革理论家的理想变成了现实,更重要的是他不局限于审美情趣问题,而把设计看成是更加广泛的社会问题的一个部分。由于超越了“美学”的范畴,使他能接触到那些由来已久的更加重要的问题。因此,在某种意义上来说,他作为现代设计的伟大先驱是当之无愧的。
紧步19世纪三四十年代的普金以及19世纪50年代的拉斯金后尘的是19世纪七八十年代的威廉莫里斯。莫里斯使得改革主义者的传统对于现代主义所作的贡献变得极其重要。在激烈地坚持反化工业立场的同时(“机器生产从总体上看是一场罪恶”),在一些重要方面,他也是一位反历史主义者。他所强调的是中世纪手工工艺的加工方法,而不是中世纪的艺术风格。对于莫里斯而言,艺术仅仅是“人们在劳动中所表达出来的欢悦”,至于那些“只有极少数人自称是理解的或所受到感动的……古希腊与意大利之梦”其实并没有什么了不起。其实,莫里斯并没有逃遁到过去的时代中去,相反,他选择了直面这个世界。他还是英国早期社会主义的重要人物,他呼唤那些“来源于人民,服务于人民”的艺术作品。换句话说,他不仅鼓吹恢复劳动者的尊严和手工工艺的美,他还主张给予整个生产劳动阶层以选举权。他还满腔热情地投身于对整个社区的良好设计、认真实施、非历史主义环境的创造。莫里斯有关透过一种新的建筑模式,以及一种应用性的工艺与美术来拯救人类的思想,并不仅仅是停留在口头上的一个提议——这里指的是莫里斯于1877~1894年所作的35场著名的系列讲座,而且也采取了实际的行动:由菲利普韦伯于1859年为他精巧地设计与布置了的住宅“红屋”,以及最重要的是,他于1861年所创立的公司——莫里斯、马歇尔(Marshall)和福克纳(Faulkner)绘画、雕刻、家具与金属制品工艺美术公司,这就是英国工艺美术运动的转折点。
但是,在莫里斯的理论中有一个不可回避的矛盾。尽管有许多进步的思想,但是他却固执地将一只脚深深地陷在了一种过时的生产方式中。当他自己痛苦地意识到,手工生产是昂贵的,非常昂贵的,事实上他那经过精巧提炼与加工的产品主要都是为了那些“有钱人的猪一样的奢侈生活”的,正如他自己所唾骂的那样。莫里斯对于他所憎恶的工业社会爱恨交加,因而他迈出了明显的决定性一步:接受机器,学习机器的生产方式,然后要引导机器来生产那些不是那么假冒伪劣或俗不可耐的东西,而是以其现代的方式而认真设计、精细制作,并使用了坚固的材料的东西,恰如那些传统手工艺品一样美丽传神。当然,即使是莫里斯自己也没有能够迈出这一步——这一步的实际迈出是发生在世纪转折之后的德国,以他为先例使得这一结果变得可能,他那热情洋溢的精神以及他对于艺术的社会主义幻想,恰如一座通往更好世界的桥梁,成为了现代艺术运动的里程碑。

人物影响

莫里斯的理论与实践在英国产生了很大影响,一些年轻的艺术家和建筑师,如沃赛、马克穆多和阿什比等人,纷纷效仿,进行设计的革新,从而引发了“工艺美术运动”的产生。尽管有其先天的局限,但它首先提出了“美与技术结合”的原则,主张美术家从事设计,反对“纯艺术”,另外,还强调设计应“师承自然”、忠实于材料和适应使用目的,并创造出了一些朴素而适用的作品,为全世界的设计革新运动做出了杰出的贡献。
莫里斯是一位复杂的人物,在政治上和设计上他是激进的,但他又深深地迷恋传统,有时还体现出强烈的浪漫色彩。他是一位积极的社会主义者,主张社会平等和反对压迫,但在其晚年却出现了矛盾的现象。一方面他的社会主义理想进一步发展,另一方面他的设计又变得越来越复杂和昂贵,他所接受的设计委托多是豪华宫殿的室内装修设计。因此,要全面了解莫里斯,我们必须将他的理论与他的实际工作分别开来。前者体现了他对未来“乌托邦式”的理想,后者又不得不与英国工业化的现实相适应。这种理论与实践脱节的现象正是这一时期设计改革家们的共性。

English Introduction

March 24, 1834 William Morris
Born into a wealthy middle-class family in Walther M Stow, England. His father was a successful stockbroker. At the age of 14 Maurice entered Marlborough College (Marlborough College), was deeply influenced by Oxford movement. In 1853 he entered the University of Oxford, Exeter (Exeter College), to study theology as a priest. The college is met as pastor Edward Byrne Jones, the two became lifelong friends and in the days after Rafael joined the youth.
Maurice's career in Oxford made a great deal of interest in art and literature, especially in medieval art, design and architecture. At the age of 22, he inherited an annuity, which he and Bourne - Jones together in northern France hiking, visit the Columbia cathedral.
After the return of Maurice and Bourne - with the participation of the United States in the streets of the Gothic Revival of the construction of the main street of the city of St. John's, the construction of the Gothic Revival of the construction of the work of the Gothic Revival of the streets of St. John's. During the understanding of Philip Webb, three people together and create a good arts and crafts movement. Maurice first took part in art, but soon turned to interior design.
Introduced by Byrne Jones in 1857,
Maurice went to visit Dante Gabriel Rossetti, but the pre Raphaelite Godfather on Maurice's art creation up to ridicule. Fortunately met Rossetti model (Jane Burden) Jane berdon, she came from a working class is weak and pale and have a thick dark brown hair, by the pre Raphaelite club members as the embodiment of beauty
. Two people after several twists and turns in 1859 into a husband and wife, moved into the red house designed by Philip Webb. The new home for Maurice and his friends have a go, one by one in a medieval style design and manufacture Home Furnishing objects and all the furnishings, etched glass window, wall paintings, tapestry from the ancient church. 1861 by the completion of the red house, Maurice decided to set up a partnership MMF, private interest into commercial.
With the in-depth study of medieval art and design, and inspired by John Raskin's theory, the natural aesthetic function of the subjective initiative of the craftsman was promoted by Maurice
. He was determined to revive the tradition of the handicraft industry, which he thought had been almost destroyed by the industrial revolution, and vigorously promote the work of the craftsman, in which the craftsman could be pleased with his masterpiece.
Maurice hopes to further elaborate the rich furnishings more than the limited, shall also enter the homes of ordinary people. However, these two goals are often contradictory, handmade products far beyond the price of the machine, Maurice's products are generally the most expensive on the market.
In mid 1860s, Maurice devoted himself to wallpaper design
One of the founders of the most well-known, such as scaffolding, daisies and fruit. Scaffolding is Maurice first thing wallpaper design, 1864, for the red house, moved out in 1865. Maurice can't draw birds, so Philip Webb added the necessary birds.
In 1875 MMF company to disband, Maurice new Moelis Company, for the independent production made full control. The development and perfection of his creative peak, many printing patterns in the early nineteenth Century. Maurice initially focused on the use of plant dyes for dyeing and printing, production outsourcing.
He made lifelong friends and partners Dante Gabriel Rossetti (DanteGabrielRossetti), Bernard Edward - Jones (EdwardBurne-Jones), Forde Maddox Brown (FordMadoxBrown) and Philip Webb (PhilipWebb). He and his friends created before the Rafael brothers club, boycott kitsch art and architecture decoration manufacturing industry, advocating the handicraft to return, the craftsman artist status. He believes that art should be able to withstand the civilian, handmade, art media should not be divided.
He has two daughters,
Jane (nickname Jeanne) and Marie (plum).
Maurice has a sense of the 1851 British Expo exhibition industry is too rough, and Ruskin, Pugin et al. Putin has dominated the arts and Crafts Movement (The Arts and Crafts Movement) and Maurice became leader of the arts and crafts movement, vigorously promote the restoration of handicrafts. And the establishment of the MMF chamber of Commerce in London Red Lion square. MMF chamber of Commerce (Morris. Marshall, Fanlker) in early 1861 new production specialization design style and German medieval style, later began to develop more organic style. After the production of furniture can be broadly divided into two categories: A. class furniture statefurniture B. furniture work-dayfurmitureMaurice was born in March 24, 1834 in Essex (Essex) of a wealthy family. At the age of 17, he accompanied his mother to visit the Crystal Palace in 1851, held in Hyde Park, the international industrial fair. The fair on the one hand
The achievements of industrial development in Europe and the United States are fully demonstrated. On the other hand, the problems in industrial design are exposed. The Expo building - "Crystal Palace" is a pioneer of modern architecture in twentieth Century, and "Crystal Palace" (Figure 2) display the contents of its construction is in stark contrast to reflect a common passion for decoration and the decoration, ignoring any basic design principles, the abuse of decoration than for the production of the commodity market. Maurice for the exhibits very offensive, this matter to him after join in the industrial products against crudely made are closely related.
William Morris as the founder of the British Arts and crafts movement. It is an important pioneer in the design of John Raskin thought. Rafael is a leading member of the youth. (Rafael send that back to the medieval tradition, traditional crafts, design is the art of honesty) strict, Maurice was not a founder of modern design: because his exploration of precisely the focus negation of modern design depend on the center of the industrialization and mechanization production. His purpose is to revive the old style, especially in the middle ages, Gothic style, on the one hand, he denied the mechanization, industrialization style, on the other hand, the excessive decoration of the Vitoria style. He believes that only Gothic, medieval architecture, furniture, supplies, books, carpets and other design is "honest" design. The design style of the other if not ugly, is affectation. And should deny, overthrow. The design of guild spirit can save only Renaissance and medieval Gothic style, designed to keep the national, folk and high quality. For him, both classical style and modern style, are not enough, the only thing to rely on is the medieval, Gothic, naturalistic three sources. He emphasizes the combination of practicality and beauty, but how to achieve this goal, for him, is still the craft way, using a simple Gothic and naturalistic decoration, therefore, his this limitation makes it impossible for him to become the founder of modern design.
He repeatedly emphasized the two basic principles of design
1, product design and architectural design for thousands of people, rather than for a few people's activities;
2, the design work must be a collective activity, rather than individual labor.
These two principles were developed in the later modernism design.
Maurice's "red house" has achieved great success, not only is the use of functional requirements as the primary consideration, some lessons in Medieval England and especially the Gothic style details of residential building design, so as to get rid of the architectural features of Vitoria during the period of tedious, but also in Maurice from the unified scheme of design of the whole building, indoor furniture etc.. "Red house" built attracted wide interest and praised the design community, made Maurice feel good for the society for the design and the needs of a wide range of popular design, he hopes to be able to provide the design service for the public, designed to provide real good for society, changing the design in the popular artificial way, against the Vitoria style monopoly also, against the menacing style industrialization.

English Introduction

In 1880--1910, the British launched a design movement -- with vigour and vitality of Arts and crafts movement, this movement in the United Kingdom as the center, spread to many countries in Europe and America, and design movement on the later had a profound impact. William Morris is the main agent and leader of the movement.
Maurice studied theology at University of Oxford. Where he was influenced by the design idea of ruskin. Raskin is a writer and critic, he to propagate its ideas through very eloquent and influential preaching, in opposition to industrialization at the same time, Raskin on architecture and product design and puts forward some criteria, such as "from nature, faithful to the traditional material" etc.. These thoughts led Maurice to the road of art and design. After traveling to France, Maurice had a strong interest in Gothic architecture, so he entered an architect's office to study architecture, and began his design career.
Maurice's first attempt at the new design idea was the renovation of his newly married house, the red house. In order to buy a home for the newly married family, a small shop, but he could not buy a satisfactory furniture and other household goods, which shocked him. Under the cooperation of several like-minded friends, he himself designed and manufactured according to their own standards. In the course of the design, he combines stylized natural patterns, crafting, medieval moral and social ideas and visual simplicity. For the form, or decorative and functional relations, according to Maurice, decoration should emphasize the form and function, rather than to cover up them.
After the completion of the "red house", Maurice and a few friends to establish their own business - "Maurice firm", their own design and production of products. This is the origin of many arts and crafts design guild in the second half of nineteenth Century in the uk. Although Maurice and others have designed furniture, but he is mainly a graphic designer, that is engaged in fabrics, wallpaper, tiles, carpets, color mosaic glass design. In addition, in the aspect of printing, book design, he has also made outstanding achievements, he especially pay attention to the layout, emphasizing the decorative layout, usually adopt the symmetrical structure, the formation of a rigorous, simple, dignified style. His design with plants as the theme, a natural flavor and reflect a medieval pastoral flavor, which is the embodiment of Raskin "Apprentice of nature" idea, to later popular in Europe, the new art movement has produced certain effect as sports design innovation thought leader, Raskin will blame reason crudely made in mechanical products in mass production, thus trying to accuse the industry and its products. Like Raskin, Maurice thought that the problem of the product was associated with the production of the machine. However, Maurice does not like Ruskin's fear and loathing machine, he believes that the consistency of division of labor has separated the work, resulting in the irresponsible decoration. Although Maurice in the treatment of mechanization and industrial production have him behind, but he made the previous design reform theorists ideals into reality, the more important is that he is not confined to the aesthetic appeal, but the design is seen as a social problem more widely divided. Beyond the category of "Aesthetics", he was able to reach out to the more important problems of the past. Therefore, in a sense, he is a great pioneer of modern design.
Nineteenth Century 30s and 40s is the 1850s Putin and Ruskin's William Morris in 70s and 80s nineteenth Century. Maurice made it very important for the reformist tradition to make contributions to modernism. At the same time, he is also an anti historicism in some important respects, while he is keen to adhere to the position of anti chemical industry. What he emphasized was the medieval craftsmanship, rather than the medieval art. For Maurice, art is only expressed by people in the labor of joy, "as for the" only a handful of people claiming to be understood or have moved...... "The dream of ancient Greece and Italy" is not so great. In fact, Maurice did not escape to the past times. Instead, he chose to face the world. He was also an important figure in the early socialism of England, and he called for the works of art from the people and the people. In other words, he not only advocates the restoration of the dignity of workers and the beauty of craftsmanship, but also advocates the right to vote for the entire working class. He is also enthusiastic to devote himself to the good design of the whole community, the earnest implementation, the creation of non historic environment. Maurice through the construction of a new model, and the process and application of a kind of art to save human thought, not only is an offer to stay in the oral, here refers to the 35 famous Maurice Lecture Series in 1877~1894 work, but also take practical action: residential "by Philip Weber in 1859 for his exquisite design and layout of the red house, and most importantly, in 1861 he founded the company, Maurice, Marshall (Marshall) and Faulkner (Faulkner) painting, carving, furniture and metal products and crafts company, this is the turning point of the British Arts and crafts movement.However, there is an unavoidable contradiction in Maurice's theory. Although there are many progressive ideas, but he stubbornly put one foot deep in an outdated mode of production. When he himself painfully aware of the manual production is expensive, very expensive, in fact his through sophisticated refining and processing products are mainly for the "rich pig luxury", as his own shame. For Maurice he detested the industrial society hate, so he took a decisive step clear: accept the machine learning machine, production mode, and then to guide the machine to produce those not so fake or too vulgar to be endured things, but in the modern way and careful design, fine production, and the use of solid materials what is the traditional handicrafts as beautiful and vivid. Of course, even Maurice himself was not able to take this step, the actual has taken this step occurred in Germany after the turn of the century, with him as the precedent making this result becomes possible, his spirit and his artistic ebullience for socialist fantasy, just as a bridge to the bridge has become a better world, milepost of modern art movement.
The theory and practice of Maurice's influence in the UK, some of the young artists and architects, such as Wosai, Mark Mu do and Ashby, have to follow, design innovation, which led to the "Arts and crafts". Despite its inherent limitations, but it first proposed the "combination" of beauty and technology, advocate the artists engaged in the design, against the "pure art", in addition, also stressed that the design should be "from nature", faithful to the material and adapt to the purpose of use, and create some simple and applicable works made outstanding contribution to the world of design innovation movement.
Maurice is a complex character, in politics and design he is radical, but he is deeply infatuated with tradition, sometimes also reflects a strong romantic color. He is an active socialist, advocating social equality and opposition to oppression, but in his later years there has been a paradox. On the one hand the further development of his socialist ideals, on the other hand, his design has become more and more complex and expensive, he accepted the design commissioned by the luxurious palace interior decoration design. Therefore, to fully understand Maurice, we must separate his theory from his practical work. The former embodies his ideal of Utopia in the future, and the latter has to adapt to the reality of British industrialization. The theory and practice from the phenomenon of this period is the common design of reformers.

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