生于英国沃尔瑟姆斯托一户富裕的中产阶级家庭，他的父亲是成功的股票经纪人。14岁时莫里斯进入莫尔伯勒学院（Marlborough College），受牛津运动影响很深。1853年他进入牛津大学埃克塞特学院（Exeter College），为当牧师而学习神学。大学时期结识了正就任牧师的爱德华·伯恩·琼斯，二人结为终身挚友并在日后一同加入拉菲尔前派。
莫里斯有感1851年英国万国博览会展出之工业品过于粗糙，与鲁斯金Ruskin、普金Pugin等人主导了工艺美术运动(The Arts and Crafts Movement)而莫里斯成为美术工艺运动的主导者，大力提倡恢复手工艺品。并成立了MMF商会于伦敦红狮广场。MMF商会(Morris。Marshall，Fanlker)1861年前期专精生产新歌德样式与中世纪风格的设计，后期开始发展更为有机的风格。后期生产的家具大致分为两大类别:a.阶级家具statefurniture b.日作家具work-dayfurmiture
March 24, 1834 William Morris
Born into a wealthy middle-class family in Walther M Stow, England. His father was a successful stockbroker. At the age of 14 Maurice entered Marlborough College (Marlborough College), was deeply influenced by Oxford movement. In 1853 he entered the University of Oxford, Exeter (Exeter College), to study theology as a priest. The college is met as pastor Edward Byrne Jones, the two became lifelong friends and in the days after Rafael joined the youth.
Maurice's career in Oxford made a great deal of interest in art and literature, especially in medieval art, design and architecture. At the age of 22, he inherited an annuity, which he and Bourne - Jones together in northern France hiking, visit the Columbia cathedral.
After the return of Maurice and Bourne - with the participation of the United States in the streets of the Gothic Revival of the construction of the main street of the city of St. John's, the construction of the Gothic Revival of the construction of the work of the Gothic Revival of the streets of St. John's. During the understanding of Philip Webb, three people together and create a good arts and crafts movement. Maurice first took part in art, but soon turned to interior design.
Introduced by Byrne Jones in 1857,
Maurice went to visit Dante Gabriel Rossetti, but the pre Raphaelite Godfather on Maurice's art creation up to ridicule. Fortunately met Rossetti model (Jane Burden) Jane berdon, she came from a working class is weak and pale and have a thick dark brown hair, by the pre Raphaelite club members as the embodiment of beauty
. Two people after several twists and turns in 1859 into a husband and wife, moved into the red house designed by Philip Webb. The new home for Maurice and his friends have a go, one by one in a medieval style design and manufacture Home Furnishing objects and all the furnishings, etched glass window, wall paintings, tapestry from the ancient church. 1861 by the completion of the red house, Maurice decided to set up a partnership MMF, private interest into commercial.
With the in-depth study of medieval art and design, and inspired by John Raskin's theory, the natural aesthetic function of the subjective initiative of the craftsman was promoted by Maurice
. He was determined to revive the tradition of the handicraft industry, which he thought had been almost destroyed by the industrial revolution, and vigorously promote the work of the craftsman, in which the craftsman could be pleased with his masterpiece.
Maurice hopes to further elaborate the rich furnishings more than the limited, shall also enter the homes of ordinary people. However, these two goals are often contradictory, handmade products far beyond the price of the machine, Maurice's products are generally the most expensive on the market.
In mid 1860s, Maurice devoted himself to wallpaper design
One of the founders of the most well-known, such as scaffolding, daisies and fruit. Scaffolding is Maurice first thing wallpaper design, 1864, for the red house, moved out in 1865. Maurice can't draw birds, so Philip Webb added the necessary birds.
In 1875 MMF company to disband, Maurice new Moelis Company, for the independent production made full control. The development and perfection of his creative peak, many printing patterns in the early nineteenth Century. Maurice initially focused on the use of plant dyes for dyeing and printing, production outsourcing.
He made lifelong friends and partners Dante Gabriel Rossetti (DanteGabrielRossetti), Bernard Edward - Jones (EdwardBurne-Jones), Forde Maddox Brown (FordMadoxBrown) and Philip Webb (PhilipWebb). He and his friends created before the Rafael brothers club, boycott kitsch art and architecture decoration manufacturing industry, advocating the handicraft to return, the craftsman artist status. He believes that art should be able to withstand the civilian, handmade, art media should not be divided.
He has two daughters,
Jane (nickname Jeanne) and Marie (plum).
Maurice has a sense of the 1851 British Expo exhibition industry is too rough, and Ruskin, Pugin et al. Putin has dominated the arts and Crafts Movement (The Arts and Crafts Movement) and Maurice became leader of the arts and crafts movement, vigorously promote the restoration of handicrafts. And the establishment of the MMF chamber of Commerce in London Red Lion square. MMF chamber of Commerce (Morris. Marshall, Fanlker) in early 1861 new production specialization design style and German medieval style, later began to develop more organic style. After the production of furniture can be broadly divided into two categories: A. class furniture statefurniture B. furniture work-dayfurmitureMaurice was born in March 24, 1834 in Essex (Essex) of a wealthy family. At the age of 17, he accompanied his mother to visit the Crystal Palace in 1851, held in Hyde Park, the international industrial fair. The fair on the one hand
The achievements of industrial development in Europe and the United States are fully demonstrated. On the other hand, the problems in industrial design are exposed. The Expo building - "Crystal Palace" is a pioneer of modern architecture in twentieth Century, and "Crystal Palace" (Figure 2) display the contents of its construction is in stark contrast to reflect a common passion for decoration and the decoration, ignoring any basic design principles, the abuse of decoration than for the production of the commodity market. Maurice for the exhibits very offensive, this matter to him after join in the industrial products against crudely made are closely related.
William Morris as the founder of the British Arts and crafts movement. It is an important pioneer in the design of John Raskin thought. Rafael is a leading member of the youth. (Rafael send that back to the medieval tradition, traditional crafts, design is the art of honesty) strict, Maurice was not a founder of modern design: because his exploration of precisely the focus negation of modern design depend on the center of the industrialization and mechanization production. His purpose is to revive the old style, especially in the middle ages, Gothic style, on the one hand, he denied the mechanization, industrialization style, on the other hand, the excessive decoration of the Vitoria style. He believes that only Gothic, medieval architecture, furniture, supplies, books, carpets and other design is "honest" design. The design style of the other if not ugly, is affectation. And should deny, overthrow. The design of guild spirit can save only Renaissance and medieval Gothic style, designed to keep the national, folk and high quality. For him, both classical style and modern style, are not enough, the only thing to rely on is the medieval, Gothic, naturalistic three sources. He emphasizes the combination of practicality and beauty, but how to achieve this goal, for him, is still the craft way, using a simple Gothic and naturalistic decoration, therefore, his this limitation makes it impossible for him to become the founder of modern design.
He repeatedly emphasized the two basic principles of design
1, product design and architectural design for thousands of people, rather than for a few people's activities;
2, the design work must be a collective activity, rather than individual labor.
These two principles were developed in the later modernism design.
Maurice's "red house" has achieved great success, not only is the use of functional requirements as the primary consideration, some lessons in Medieval England and especially the Gothic style details of residential building design, so as to get rid of the architectural features of Vitoria during the period of tedious, but also in Maurice from the unified scheme of design of the whole building, indoor furniture etc.. "Red house" built attracted wide interest and praised the design community, made Maurice feel good for the society for the design and the needs of a wide range of popular design, he hopes to be able to provide the design service for the public, designed to provide real good for society, changing the design in the popular artificial way, against the Vitoria style monopoly also, against the menacing style industrialization.
In 1880--1910, the British launched a design movement -- with vigour and vitality of Arts and crafts movement, this movement in the United Kingdom as the center, spread to many countries in Europe and America, and design movement on the later had a profound impact. William Morris is the main agent and leader of the movement.
Maurice studied theology at University of Oxford. Where he was influenced by the design idea of ruskin. Raskin is a writer and critic, he to propagate its ideas through very eloquent and influential preaching, in opposition to industrialization at the same time, Raskin on architecture and product design and puts forward some criteria, such as "from nature, faithful to the traditional material" etc.. These thoughts led Maurice to the road of art and design. After traveling to France, Maurice had a strong interest in Gothic architecture, so he entered an architect's office to study architecture, and began his design career.
Maurice's first attempt at the new design idea was the renovation of his newly married house, the red house. In order to buy a home for the newly married family, a small shop, but he could not buy a satisfactory furniture and other household goods, which shocked him. Under the cooperation of several like-minded friends, he himself designed and manufactured according to their own standards. In the course of the design, he combines stylized natural patterns, crafting, medieval moral and social ideas and visual simplicity. For the form, or decorative and functional relations, according to Maurice, decoration should emphasize the form and function, rather than to cover up them.
After the completion of the "red house", Maurice and a few friends to establish their own business - "Maurice firm", their own design and production of products. This is the origin of many arts and crafts design guild in the second half of nineteenth Century in the uk. Although Maurice and others have designed furniture, but he is mainly a graphic designer, that is engaged in fabrics, wallpaper, tiles, carpets, color mosaic glass design. In addition, in the aspect of printing, book design, he has also made outstanding achievements, he especially pay attention to the layout, emphasizing the decorative layout, usually adopt the symmetrical structure, the formation of a rigorous, simple, dignified style. His design with plants as the theme, a natural flavor and reflect a medieval pastoral flavor, which is the embodiment of Raskin "Apprentice of nature" idea, to later popular in Europe, the new art movement has produced certain effect as sports design innovation thought leader, Raskin will blame reason crudely made in mechanical products in mass production, thus trying to accuse the industry and its products. Like Raskin, Maurice thought that the problem of the product was associated with the production of the machine. However, Maurice does not like Ruskin's fear and loathing machine, he believes that the consistency of division of labor has separated the work, resulting in the irresponsible decoration. Although Maurice in the treatment of mechanization and industrial production have him behind, but he made the previous design reform theorists ideals into reality, the more important is that he is not confined to the aesthetic appeal, but the design is seen as a social problem more widely divided. Beyond the category of "Aesthetics", he was able to reach out to the more important problems of the past. Therefore, in a sense, he is a great pioneer of modern design.
Nineteenth Century 30s and 40s is the 1850s Putin and Ruskin's William Morris in 70s and 80s nineteenth Century. Maurice made it very important for the reformist tradition to make contributions to modernism. At the same time, he is also an anti historicism in some important respects, while he is keen to adhere to the position of anti chemical industry. What he emphasized was the medieval craftsmanship, rather than the medieval art. For Maurice, art is only expressed by people in the labor of joy, "as for the" only a handful of people claiming to be understood or have moved...... "The dream of ancient Greece and Italy" is not so great. In fact, Maurice did not escape to the past times. Instead, he chose to face the world. He was also an important figure in the early socialism of England, and he called for the works of art from the people and the people. In other words, he not only advocates the restoration of the dignity of workers and the beauty of craftsmanship, but also advocates the right to vote for the entire working class. He is also enthusiastic to devote himself to the good design of the whole community, the earnest implementation, the creation of non historic environment. Maurice through the construction of a new model, and the process and application of a kind of art to save human thought, not only is an offer to stay in the oral, here refers to the 35 famous Maurice Lecture Series in 1877~1894 work, but also take practical action: residential "by Philip Weber in 1859 for his exquisite design and layout of the red house, and most importantly, in 1861 he founded the company, Maurice, Marshall (Marshall) and Faulkner (Faulkner) painting, carving, furniture and metal products and crafts company, this is the turning point of the British Arts and crafts movement.However, there is an unavoidable contradiction in Maurice's theory. Although there are many progressive ideas, but he stubbornly put one foot deep in an outdated mode of production. When he himself painfully aware of the manual production is expensive, very expensive, in fact his through sophisticated refining and processing products are mainly for the "rich pig luxury", as his own shame. For Maurice he detested the industrial society hate, so he took a decisive step clear: accept the machine learning machine, production mode, and then to guide the machine to produce those not so fake or too vulgar to be endured things, but in the modern way and careful design, fine production, and the use of solid materials what is the traditional handicrafts as beautiful and vivid. Of course, even Maurice himself was not able to take this step, the actual has taken this step occurred in Germany after the turn of the century, with him as the precedent making this result becomes possible, his spirit and his artistic ebullience for socialist fantasy, just as a bridge to the bridge has become a better world, milepost of modern art movement.
The theory and practice of Maurice's influence in the UK, some of the young artists and architects, such as Wosai, Mark Mu do and Ashby, have to follow, design innovation, which led to the "Arts and crafts". Despite its inherent limitations, but it first proposed the "combination" of beauty and technology, advocate the artists engaged in the design, against the "pure art", in addition, also stressed that the design should be "from nature", faithful to the material and adapt to the purpose of use, and create some simple and applicable works made outstanding contribution to the world of design innovation movement.
Maurice is a complex character, in politics and design he is radical, but he is deeply infatuated with tradition, sometimes also reflects a strong romantic color. He is an active socialist, advocating social equality and opposition to oppression, but in his later years there has been a paradox. On the one hand the further development of his socialist ideals, on the other hand, his design has become more and more complex and expensive, he accepted the design commissioned by the luxurious palace interior decoration design. Therefore, to fully understand Maurice, we must separate his theory from his practical work. The former embodies his ideal of Utopia in the future, and the latter has to adapt to the reality of British industrialization. The theory and practice from the phenomenon of this period is the common design of reformers.