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杜菲 Raoul Dufy

( 野兽主义成员之一 )

杜菲(1877-1953年)作为20世纪初叶现代绘画史开端的野兽主义成员之一,是一位多元化创作的艺术家。除绘画之外,他的艺术领域扩展到挂毯、壁画、布料图案设计及陶瓷创作,活泼的曲线运用,成为崭新流行设计的先驱。

人物关系
  • 中文名杜菲
  • 外文名Raoul Dufy
  • 性别
  • 国籍法国
  • 出生地法国诺曼底
  • 出生日期1877年
  • 逝世日期1953年
  • 职业画家
  • 毕业院校巴黎波拿巴路美术学院入博纳画室
  • 主要成就绘画创作
  • 代表作品《粉画作品》
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法国画家杜菲的艺术世界

中国美术网 09-17 浏览

出生于19世纪末,活跃在20世纪上半叶的劳尔·杜菲(RaoulDufy,1877-1953),是现代美术史上具有独创精神,进行多方面探索的画家。杜菲的艺术世界是一个充满快乐的世界,画家独特的造型和用色...
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人物简介

杜菲 (1877-1953年)出生于法国的勒阿弗尔,逝于弗卡尔基埃。杜菲14岁时打工,业余上美术夜校,23岁时获得一笔可观奖学金赴巴黎波拿巴路美术学院入博纳画室学画。那时卢浮宫大师们的艺术令他害怕,真正和他商讨艺术的是凡·高。当他1905年看到了马蒂斯的《华丽·宁静与快乐》一画时说道:“在这幅画前我懂得了全部绘画道理以及它存在的意义,看到素描和色彩所反映出来的神奇想像力,印象派的写实主义失去了对于我的魅力。”从此他放弃了早期风格成为野兽派中的一员大将。31岁的杜菲开始为塞尚以构成对待物象形体的观点所吸引,他与布拉克一起研究构成,他们以形体构成为主,所有形象都被几何形化。另一方面他们又引进立体主义分析性构图,其色彩也仅限于土黄、蓝绿与灰色。这只是一个短暂的实验而已,很快又回到喜爱的装饰性色彩和精致的素描结合的画风中去。

家庭背景

杜菲1877年出生于法国诺曼底一个清寒的大家庭里,父亲替别人经营一家金属商店,靠菲薄的收入养活八个孩子。母亲没有工作,艰难地担负起全家的家务活。杜菲的父亲酷爱音乐,经常弹奏风琴,一家来到哪里,哪里就充满了音乐。自然,音乐成了杜菲的终生至爱和重要创作题材,从音乐中得到了无限的灵感和自由的想象。为了养家糊口,杜菲十四岁时便被迫到一家咖啡店里去当一名低级雇员,经常被派遣去码头、港口干一些粗重的体力活。繁重的劳动并没有压垮他乐观的天性,后来他在回忆这段往事时说:“我闻到那种气味,就说得出这船是从德克萨斯、印度还是亚速群岛来的,而且这一点还激发了我的想象力。我在桥上或甲板曾为那射向河口湾的独特灯光而欣喜若狂……。”①(注:参见徐君萱著《世界美术家画库——迪菲》,上海人民美术出版社,1986年版。)港口、码头、大海,这些都成为日后杜菲作品中得心应手的表现题材。

杜菲是位快乐的画家,他愉快地观察、想像和创作,从不放弃感觉世界的真实性,他能通过作品描绘自己内心的活动。他以大量的方块、长方形、三角形和卵形,意到笔随地组织和展现观察的魅力。在他的作品中,所有的物象都具有清晰的轮廓、动势和节奏,但又都是艺术的真实,而非自然真实。画家通过线条和颜色,直接向我们传达他的个性和感情。他的画不是通过所画对象本身去诉说,而是通过再创造的艺术形象感染观者。
杜菲从不看重荣誉,他只是一个为画画而活着的画家,他以其对现代艺术的贡献受世人注目。

作品风格

杜菲对于描绘对象形体的塑造也非常独特,在他的众多作品里,无论是人物、景物还是静物,大多都没有真实、细致的描绘,往往都是用简单的线条草草勾勒而成,像是仓促而就的速写。这些线条看似简单,实则精彩异常。一点一画之间,并不追求对象的形似,而是将重点放在与对象的神似,强调对节奏和韵律的把握,营造画面整体的氛围和气韵,这一点和东方艺术暗合。这些看似不经意的点点画画,酷似中国的草书带给人的那种行云流水、龙飞风舞的轻松与潇洒之感。例如杜菲的《交响乐队》描绘了一个由数十人组成的交响乐队在音乐厅演奏的场景,画中每一个乐手都被简化成了几根卷曲流畅的曲线,五官更是只剩下几个小黑点,音乐厅的墙壁和地板则由几根长长短短的直线构成,可以说几乎简到了极致。然而放眼观看整幅画面,又分明是一派繁忙的景象,点、线、面仿佛突然着了魔力,幻化成一个个跳动的音符,又好像是众多快乐的小精灵,在音乐厅里、在天地间自由地舞动,喜悦之情跃然画上。
在许多画家笔下,形和色是互相依附、互相制约的,而在杜菲这里,形与色各自仿佛都有了独立的意义,既相互影响又能够各自自由发挥。杜菲作画时一面用速写式的笔法准确地勾勒出场景和人物的动态,一面根据直观的色彩感受用稀薄的颜料在画面上平涂渲染几个大的色彩区域,在杜菲的画面里色和形没有明确的分界线,有的外轮廓线藏在色块里,有的色块又溢出形象之外,色彩与线条交互为用,互相衬托但绝不互相制约。这种独特的创作手法也被一些艺术评论家称为“杜菲样式”。“杜菲样式”给形与色以最大的自由度,使它们既能够充分展现自身的特质,又能够很好地融合到一起。
同时,这种表现手法还能够真实地记录下艺术家对描绘对象最生动的形体感受和最新鲜的色彩印象。杜菲的很多作品看上去好像都处于一种“未完成状态”,画面上的一些区域常常裸露空白的画布,不加任何处理,作品中的物象,看上去也仿佛不是固定的,而似乎仍颤动不定地在寻找它们最后的定型。这种“未完成状态”使得带给观众非常轻松随意的感觉,欣赏者在感受创作者的轻松状态时自己的身心也能得到极大的放松。对于画面空间透视问题,杜菲处理得更为大胆,他曾把两只鸟画得比人物还大,但人物看起来却并不比鸟离我们更远。换言之,当他在建构他的空间距离时,他所考虑的并非是一种“客观事实”的存在情况,而是他的感觉和印象。他所赋予物象的,是它们在他心中所占据的位置和份量。
对于自由的探索和生之喜悦的表达,使得杜菲不会只局限在绘画这一小圈子中。他对于各种知识的涉猎极广,对于来自民间的和异国的各种独特的艺术形式,都怀有近乎虔诚的深切爱好,而对于现实生活中层出不穷的发明创造和新鲜事物更是充满了探究的热忱,这使得他的作品无论在内容上和形式上,都达到了比之同时代画家更为广阔和多样化的程度。1911年以后,他绘制了大量的地毯、壁挂、烧制陶瓷器、设计彩色纺织品,为游泳池、动物园、艺术宫等建筑物作壁画和室内装饰,为舞台剧绘制背景,为作家创作插图……,甚至设计流行服装,在应用美术的范畴中几乎无所不包。以致有人把他称为“我们这个世纪的编年史家”。

艺术理论

1900年,绚丽多姿的巴黎画坛迎来了杜菲。此时的杜菲,学院派绘画技巧已掌握得炉火纯青,但他那种不囿于成法的创造精神,却与学院派的教学准则格格不入。在此后的许多年里,杜菲经常对学院的教学持怀疑和保留态度,他认为“真正的艺术家总是在官方组织的范围之外工作,学院这种完善体系的教学与造就艺术家及鼓励艺术家的独创精神往往是不相关的”。1900—1904年间,受印象主义思潮影响,杜菲热衷于露天的绘画和对光与色的研究,描绘巴黎市街和诺曼底海滨等热闹场所,手法明显带有印象派痕迹。但他逐渐认识到,以这种印象派的手法来做画,却找不到真实的自我。他问自己:仅以现在我所有的,我如何能表现出对象是什么,而不是我所看的外表?在我之前存在的是什么,是我的实在吗?1905年的独立沙龙展上,马蒂斯的新作《奢华、宁静与喜悦》带给杜菲思想很大震动,这幅画向他展示了“坚持绘画与色彩绝对想象的奇迹”。这样,杜菲走到了自己的野兽派时期。

跃升为野兽派代表画家并没能阻挡住杜菲探索的脚步,他悉心观察研究树木、物体、人像的几何结构,着力表现它们外观和体积的多样性,开始在立体主义的道路上探索。1908年,杜菲与布拉克塞尚曾工作过的伊斯台克并肩作画,创作了《绿树》、《拿波里坦的渔夫》等作品,形象质朴,偏几何化,色彩冷峻、节制。立体主义也没能让杜菲驻足太久,他从不为任何创作模式所束缚,正如他自己所言:我不追随任何体系,当创作的时刻到来时,大家遵循的法则就被抛到一边去了。通过不断的艺术实践,20世纪20年代后,杜菲的作品愈加不同凡响了。他常以大片大片的色彩覆盖画面,有时颜色涂得跑出了形象之外,有时候又没涂满,色与形互不干扰,还能彼此呼应。这种独特的处理方法也被许多人名之为“杜菲样式”。这一时期,杜菲的艺术走到了最高点。代表作有《牧场》、《赛船》、《赛马场》、《交响乐队》等。
 

在生命的晚年,杜菲开始简化他的绘画。他放弃了对比,代之以统制整个画面的单一色调,辅之以小块相关的灰色,色彩极度简化,但依旧充满了张力。临终之际,他还在不断探索,他对一位老友说道:“我还想去试验那些传统教我们排拒的那些色调的对比与调和,看看它们到底是怎么一回事。”
纵观杜菲的艺术漫长的历程,我们就会发现其实很难给杜菲纳入一个固定的流派中去,这可能也是艺术家自己的愿望,因为伟大的艺术家总是想获得最大的自由发挥空间,永远也不想画地为牢。杜菲在少年时期已经可以把古典主义大师传下来的精妙写实技法掌握得炉火纯青,但他并没有为此而沾沾自喜,又先后游走于印象主义、后印象主义、野兽主义、立体主义等等,直到创造出独特的“杜菲样式”,迎来艺术生涯最辉煌的时期。然而杜菲并没有停下追寻的脚步,他从东方艺术中汲取营养,纯化色彩,简化构成,风格又为之一变。除了绘画以外,他还绘制壁毯、烧制瓷器、设计服装,在艺术的天地里自由地翱翔。

人物评价

杜菲曾被誉为光与色的大师,他对色彩的驾驭真正达到了随心所欲、自由挥洒的境界。19世纪中后期,马奈毕沙罗等印象派画家们不满足古典主义画家对光影与色彩一成不变的描绘,开始走出室外直接作画,寻找大自然中最真实的色彩,使色彩获得了前所未有的解放,人们也第一次从印象派画家的作品中领略到了大自然真实色彩的魅力。其后以修拉为代表的新印象主义则是对印象主义的修正和科学化,把印象主义画家现场作画的冲动与兴奋拉回到了理性的轨道,利用光学原理来指导绘画实践。
印象主义和新印象主义对于色彩的探索较之古典主义无疑是前进了一大步,但仍局限于对客观世界色彩的真实描绘,受到所描绘对象的严格制约。直到后印象主义时期色彩才被真正解放了出来,艺术家们对色彩的描绘不再拘泥于客观的真实,而让色彩更多地遵循自己的主观感受。杜菲继承和发扬了后印象主义在色彩上的成就,他认为“当我谈到色彩时,那不是自然的色彩,而是指绘画的色彩,指在我调色盘上的色彩,其实色彩乃是光线的产物,它是绘画构成中最伟大的产物。
如果只把色彩看成天然色,那是不能真正的、深奥的、出色的绘画满足感。”①(注:参见何政广著《杜菲——描绘光与色的大师》,河北教育出版杜,1998年版。)在他的笔下,色彩仅仅作为可供自由调遣的工具而已,根据自己的主观感受和画面整体的需要,灵活自由地调配、驱使。例如杜菲对热闹繁忙的街市景象和海滨游乐场所的描绘,通常会减弱画面空间的表现,更注重景物的平面化和色彩的纯化,删繁就简,突出对象的单纯、庄重和色彩的鲜艳生动。
1906年,杜菲创作了《哈维尔的七月十四日》,描绘国庆日热闹非凡的街道景象。同一地点的同一题材也同样为马奈莫奈凡高等人描绘过,但杜菲的作品与之都不相同。杜菲笔下的国旗不再是空中的小色点,也不是莫奈用来表现那种热闹混杂印象的微妙小色块,更不是凡高用来表现其灵魂深处骚动的强烈冲突的红与蓝之创痕。它们是纯粹色之自由的安排,以其出人意料的庄严,毫无顾忌的自我肯定。为突出欢乐的气氛,杜菲毫不迟疑地打破了一切比例原则,将背景的旗子放大好几倍,因而使得那红白蓝的配合有一种抒情诗的气质,它们也就成为画面的“主角”。其后所作的《日影》,他更是大胆地将一大块红色放在整个画面中央,自由自在,毫无顾忌。

English Introductio

Duffy (1877-1953) was born in Le Havre, France, died in the F Karki E. When Duffy was 14 years old to work, amateur art school, at the age of 23 to obtain a considerable scholarship to the Paris Bonaparte Road studio painting Boehner into Academy of Fine Arts. At that time, the art of the Le Louvre Museum masters made him afraid, and he was really talking about the art of Van Gogh. When he saw Matisse said in 1905 the "gorgeous, peaceful and happy" a picture in front of this picture: "I understand the full truth of painting and the significance of its existence, see sketch and color reflected the magical imagination, impressionistic realism lost for my charm." From then on he gave up the early style to become a member of the beast. Attracted by the 31 year old Duffy Cezanne began to form a treatment object form point of view, he and Braque together constitute the research, they constitute mainly form, all images are geometric shape. On the other hand, they also introduced the analysis of Cubism composition, its color is limited to yellowish brown, blue green and grey. This is just a brief experiment, quickly returned to decorative color favorite and exquisite combination of style in sketch.Duffy was born in 1877 in Normandy France a needy family, father for others run a metal shop, rely on the meager income to feed eight children. Mother has no job, so she is struggling with the housework. Duffy's father loved music, often played the organ, where a family, where full of music. Naturally, the music has become Duffy's lifelong love and important creative theme, from the music has been unlimited inspiration and freedom of imagination. In order to support the family, at the age of fourteen Duffy was forced to go to a coffee shop as a junior employee, often sent to port, port to do some heavy physical work. Hard work and not overwhelmed by his optimistic nature, he recalls: "I smell the smell, said that the ship was from Texas, India or the Azores to this point, but also inspired my imagination. I was in the light at the estuary is unique and the bridge deck or tread on air......." 1. (Note: see Xu Junxuan "world of art" - deffee, Shanghai people's fine arts publishing house, 1986.) Port, dock, sea, these have become the theme of the day after the works of Duffy handy.
Duffy is a happy painter, he is happy to observe, imagine and create, never give up the feeling of the reality of the world, he can portray his own inner activities. He uses a large number of squares, rectangles, triangles and oval, meaning to the pen to organize and show the charm of observation. In his works, all the images are clear outline, motive force and rhythm, but also is the reality of art, rather than natural and true. The painter conveys his personality and feelings directly to us through lines and colors. His paintings are not through the object itself to tell, but through the re creation of the image of the image of the audience.
Duffy never thought of honor. He was just a painter who lived for painting. He was impressed by his contribution to modern art.

Duffy for the shaping of the description of the object shape is also very unique, in his works, whether it is people, scenery or still life, most are not authentic and detailed description, often with simple lines and like hastily sketched, rushed to the sketch. These lines may seem simple, but actually wonderful exception. One point one, do not pursue the object shape, but will focus on the object and the spirit, emphasis on rhythm and rhythm grasp, to create a whole picture of the atmosphere and spirit, and that the coincidence of Oriental art. These seemingly casual little painting, like Chinese cursive to bring people the kind of wind, Longfei dance freely flowing style of writing and clear sense of ease. For example, Duffy's "Symphony" depicts a symphony composed of dozens of people in the concert scene, painting every musicians have been simplified into several curly smooth curves, facial features is only a few small spots, hall walls and floor by a few long short the linear form, it can be said that almost Jane to the extreme. However, viewing the whole picture, and is clearly one of the busy scene, point line and plane suddenly turned into a magic, a beat note, and like many happy elf, in the music room, dancing freely in the world, joy vividly painted.
In many artists, the shape and color are mutually dependent and mutually restricted, and in Duffy here, the shape and color as if they have an independent significance, both mutual influence and can be free to play. When Duffy is painting with a sketch style portrait of dynamic scenes and characters, according to a visual sense of color color render several large color regions in the picture by thin paint, in Duffy's picture in color and form there is no clear dividing line, some contour lines are hidden in color. Besides some color and overflow image, the color and lines for the use of interactive, set off each other but not restrict each other. This unique technique is also known as "Duffy style" by some art critics". "Duffy style" to shape and color to the greatest degree of freedom, so that they can fully display their own characteristics, and can be well integrated together.
At the same time, this technique can also be a true record of the artist's most vivid impression of the object and the most fresh color impression. Many of Duffy's works appear to be in a "unfinished state", some areas on the screen often bare blank canvas, without any treatment, the objects in works, looks like is not fixed, but still seems to be looking for the indefinite fibrillation of their last setting. This "unfinished state" makes the audience feel very relaxed and free, and the viewer can feel relaxed when he feels the relaxed state of the creator. For the perspective of the screen space, Duffy dealt with the more daring, he had two birds painted larger than the characters, but the characters do not seem to be farther away than the birds. In other words, when he is constructing his spatial distance, he is not thinking about the existence of an objective fact, but his feeling and impression. He is given, they occupy a place in his heart and weight.
For the exploration of freedom and the expression of joy of life, Duffy will not be confined to the small circle of painting. He to have a wide range of knowledge, from the folk and exotic unique art form, have near religious sincerehobby, to emerge in an endless stream in real life inventions and new things is full of exploration enthusiasm, which makes his works both in content and form, to the ratio of contemporary artists more broad and diverse degree. After 1911, he draw a large carpet, hanging, firing ceramics, textiles for color design, swimming pool, zoo, Palace of Fine Arts and other buildings as murals and interior decoration, rendering the background for the stage, as a writer of illustrations...... Even the design, fashion, almost in the application in the category of art Everything is contained therein. That someone called him "our century chronicler".In 1900, Paris ushered in the colorful painting of Duffy. At this time, Duffy, School of painting techniques have been perfected, but that he is not confined to the method of creative spirit, but with the misfits school teaching standards. After many years of college teaching, Duffy often doubts and reservations, he believes that "real artists always work in the scope of official organization, the perfect system of college teaching and training of artists and encourage artists creative spirit is often irrelevant". 1900 - 1904 years, influenced by Impressionism thought influence, Duffy is keen on the open-air painting and study of light and color, depicting the streets of Paris city and Normandy beach lively places, with obvious traces of Impressionist style. But he came to realize that he could not find the true self in the way of impressionism. He asked himself, "how can I show what the object is, not what I look like?" What is there before me, is it my reality? In 1905, Matisse's new work, luxury, tranquility and joy, brought a great shock to the mind of the artist. The painting showed him the miracle of insisting on the absolute imagination of painting and color". In this way, Duffy went to his own time.
Jumped to Fauvism artists and failed to stop the pace of exploration Duffy, his careful observation study on geometric structure of trees, objects, portraits, to show their diversity of appearance and volume, began to explore the way in cubism. In 1908, Duffy and Braque worked in Cezanne's Islamic Taiwan grams alongside painting, created a "tree", "Nagh Bo Litan the fisherman" and other works, the image of simple geometry, partial color, cold and restraint. Cubism did not let Duffy stopped for a long time, he is never bound by any mode of creation, as he himself said: I do not follow any system, when the creation of the time for you to follow the rules are laid aside. Through the practice of art, continuously after 1920s, the works of Duffy more be not of the common sort. He often covered with large tracts of color screen, and sometimes painted color out of the image, and sometimes not painted, color and shape are not interference, but also echo each other. This unique approach is also known as the "Duffy style"". During this period, Duffy's art reached its highest point. The representative of "pasture", "", "horse racing Regatta", "Symphony" etc..
In his later years, Duffy began to simplify his painting. He gave up the contrast, replaced by a single tone of the picture control, supplemented by related small gray, color extremely simplified, but still full of tension. As he continued to explore, he said to an old friend, "I would also like to test the contrast and harmony of the tones that tradition teaches us to reject, and see what they are."
Throughout the course of Duffy's art long, we will find that in fact it is difficult to give Duffy into a fixed school, this may also be the artist's own desire, because the great artists always want to get the maximum freedom, never want to go to prison. Duffy as a teenager could have been handed down from the classical master the subtle realist techniques perfected, but he wasn't pleased with oneself, also has walk in Impressionism, Post Impressionism, Fauvism, cubism and so on, until it creates a unique "Duffy style", ushered in the artistic career of the most glorious period. However, Duffy did not stop pursuing footsteps, he absorbed nutrition from Oriental Art in simplified form, purification of color, style and change. Besides drawing, he also painted tapestries, porcelain, clothing design, free to soar in the art world.Duffy has been regarded as a master of light and color, the color of the master he achieved arbitrary, free artificial boundary. In late nineteenth Century, Manet, Pissarro and other Impressionist painters do not satisfy the classical painter of light and color of the picture began to emerge from the outdoor immutable and frozen, direct painting, looking for the true colors in nature, the color has a hitherto unknown liberation, people first from the Impressionist paintings in the taste of the true colors of nature charm. Followed by Seurat as the representative of the new Impressionism is modified to the Impressionism and scientific, the impulse and excitement of the impressionist painter to paint the scene back to the rational track, using optical principle to guide the practice of painting.
To explore the color of Impressionism and Neo impressionism compared with classical is undoubtedly a big step forward, but still limited to the color of the objective world realdescription, restricted by describing objects. Color until after the Impressionist period was truly liberated, artists painted to the color no longer adhere to the objective reality, and make the color more follow their own experience. The achievements of Impressionism in the color of Duffy inherited, he believes that "when I talk about color, that is not the natural color, but the painting color, in my palette of colors, color is light in the product, it is the greatest product in the form of painting.
If only the color as a natural color, it is not a real, profound, excellent sense of painting satisfaction." 1. (Note: see what Zhengguang with "Duffy -- depiction of light and color master", Hebei Education Press, 1998 edition.) Under his pen, color only available as free disposal tools, according to the subjective feelings and picture their overall needs, flexible deployment and drive. For example, Duffy depicted on the busy street scene and seaside amusement, usually will weaken the picture space, purification, pay more attention to the scenery of the plane and the color of the object, simply highlight by cutting out the superfluous, solemn and vivid color.
In 1906, Duffy created the "July 14th of the year of the year", depicting the bustling streets of the National Day on the streets of the city of. The same theme is also the same place for MANET, Monet, Vincent et al described, but the works of Duffy and are not the same. Duffy's flag is no longer air small color, is not used to show that Monet lively impression delicate small mixed color, but not for the strong conflict between Van Gogh soul a red and blue scar. They are the arrangement of the pure color of freedom, with its unexpected majesty, without scruple. To highlight the festive atmosphere, Duffy did not hesitate to break all the principle of proportionality, the background flag enlarged several times, thus making the red white and blue with a lyric temperament, they also become the protagonist of the picture". Then the "shadow", he is bold enough to be a large red on the whole picture of the central, free, no scruples.

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