Duffy (1877-1953) was born in Le Havre, France, died in the F Karki E. When Duffy was 14 years old to work, amateur art school, at the age of 23 to obtain a considerable scholarship to the Paris Bonaparte Road studio painting Boehner into Academy of Fine Arts. At that time, the art of the Le Louvre Museum masters made him afraid, and he was really talking about the art of Van Gogh. When he saw Matisse said in 1905 the "gorgeous, peaceful and happy" a picture in front of this picture: "I understand the full truth of painting and the significance of its existence, see sketch and color reflected the magical imagination, impressionistic realism lost for my charm." From then on he gave up the early style to become a member of the beast. Attracted by the 31 year old Duffy Cezanne began to form a treatment object form point of view, he and Braque together constitute the research, they constitute mainly form, all images are geometric shape. On the other hand, they also introduced the analysis of Cubism composition, its color is limited to yellowish brown, blue green and grey. This is just a brief experiment, quickly returned to decorative color favorite and exquisite combination of style in sketch.Duffy was born in 1877 in Normandy France a needy family, father for others run a metal shop, rely on the meager income to feed eight children. Mother has no job, so she is struggling with the housework. Duffy's father loved music, often played the organ, where a family, where full of music. Naturally, the music has become Duffy's lifelong love and important creative theme, from the music has been unlimited inspiration and freedom of imagination. In order to support the family, at the age of fourteen Duffy was forced to go to a coffee shop as a junior employee, often sent to port, port to do some heavy physical work. Hard work and not overwhelmed by his optimistic nature, he recalls: "I smell the smell, said that the ship was from Texas, India or the Azores to this point, but also inspired my imagination. I was in the light at the estuary is unique and the bridge deck or tread on air......." 1. (Note: see Xu Junxuan "world of art" - deffee, Shanghai people's fine arts publishing house, 1986.) Port, dock, sea, these have become the theme of the day after the works of Duffy handy.
Duffy is a happy painter, he is happy to observe, imagine and create, never give up the feeling of the reality of the world, he can portray his own inner activities. He uses a large number of squares, rectangles, triangles and oval, meaning to the pen to organize and show the charm of observation. In his works, all the images are clear outline, motive force and rhythm, but also is the reality of art, rather than natural and true. The painter conveys his personality and feelings directly to us through lines and colors. His paintings are not through the object itself to tell, but through the re creation of the image of the image of the audience.
Duffy never thought of honor. He was just a painter who lived for painting. He was impressed by his contribution to modern art.
Duffy for the shaping of the description of the object shape is also very unique, in his works, whether it is people, scenery or still life, most are not authentic and detailed description, often with simple lines and like hastily sketched, rushed to the sketch. These lines may seem simple, but actually wonderful exception. One point one, do not pursue the object shape, but will focus on the object and the spirit, emphasis on rhythm and rhythm grasp, to create a whole picture of the atmosphere and spirit, and that the coincidence of Oriental art. These seemingly casual little painting, like Chinese cursive to bring people the kind of wind, Longfei dance freely flowing style of writing and clear sense of ease. For example, Duffy's "Symphony" depicts a symphony composed of dozens of people in the concert scene, painting every musicians have been simplified into several curly smooth curves, facial features is only a few small spots, hall walls and floor by a few long short the linear form, it can be said that almost Jane to the extreme. However, viewing the whole picture, and is clearly one of the busy scene, point line and plane suddenly turned into a magic, a beat note, and like many happy elf, in the music room, dancing freely in the world, joy vividly painted.
In many artists, the shape and color are mutually dependent and mutually restricted, and in Duffy here, the shape and color as if they have an independent significance, both mutual influence and can be free to play. When Duffy is painting with a sketch style portrait of dynamic scenes and characters, according to a visual sense of color color render several large color regions in the picture by thin paint, in Duffy's picture in color and form there is no clear dividing line, some contour lines are hidden in color. Besides some color and overflow image, the color and lines for the use of interactive, set off each other but not restrict each other. This unique technique is also known as "Duffy style" by some art critics". "Duffy style" to shape and color to the greatest degree of freedom, so that they can fully display their own characteristics, and can be well integrated together.
At the same time, this technique can also be a true record of the artist's most vivid impression of the object and the most fresh color impression. Many of Duffy's works appear to be in a "unfinished state", some areas on the screen often bare blank canvas, without any treatment, the objects in works, looks like is not fixed, but still seems to be looking for the indefinite fibrillation of their last setting. This "unfinished state" makes the audience feel very relaxed and free, and the viewer can feel relaxed when he feels the relaxed state of the creator. For the perspective of the screen space, Duffy dealt with the more daring, he had two birds painted larger than the characters, but the characters do not seem to be farther away than the birds. In other words, when he is constructing his spatial distance, he is not thinking about the existence of an objective fact, but his feeling and impression. He is given, they occupy a place in his heart and weight.
For the exploration of freedom and the expression of joy of life, Duffy will not be confined to the small circle of painting. He to have a wide range of knowledge, from the folk and exotic unique art form, have near religious sincerehobby, to emerge in an endless stream in real life inventions and new things is full of exploration enthusiasm, which makes his works both in content and form, to the ratio of contemporary artists more broad and diverse degree. After 1911, he draw a large carpet, hanging, firing ceramics, textiles for color design, swimming pool, zoo, Palace of Fine Arts and other buildings as murals and interior decoration, rendering the background for the stage, as a writer of illustrations...... Even the design, fashion, almost in the application in the category of art Everything is contained therein. That someone called him "our century chronicler".In 1900, Paris ushered in the colorful painting of Duffy. At this time, Duffy, School of painting techniques have been perfected, but that he is not confined to the method of creative spirit, but with the misfits school teaching standards. After many years of college teaching, Duffy often doubts and reservations, he believes that "real artists always work in the scope of official organization, the perfect system of college teaching and training of artists and encourage artists creative spirit is often irrelevant". 1900 - 1904 years, influenced by Impressionism thought influence, Duffy is keen on the open-air painting and study of light and color, depicting the streets of Paris city and Normandy beach lively places, with obvious traces of Impressionist style. But he came to realize that he could not find the true self in the way of impressionism. He asked himself, "how can I show what the object is, not what I look like?" What is there before me, is it my reality? In 1905, Matisse's new work, luxury, tranquility and joy, brought a great shock to the mind of the artist. The painting showed him the miracle of insisting on the absolute imagination of painting and color". In this way, Duffy went to his own time.
Jumped to Fauvism artists and failed to stop the pace of exploration Duffy, his careful observation study on geometric structure of trees, objects, portraits, to show their diversity of appearance and volume, began to explore the way in cubism. In 1908, Duffy and Braque worked in Cezanne's Islamic Taiwan grams alongside painting, created a "tree", "Nagh Bo Litan the fisherman" and other works, the image of simple geometry, partial color, cold and restraint. Cubism did not let Duffy stopped for a long time, he is never bound by any mode of creation, as he himself said: I do not follow any system, when the creation of the time for you to follow the rules are laid aside. Through the practice of art, continuously after 1920s, the works of Duffy more be not of the common sort. He often covered with large tracts of color screen, and sometimes painted color out of the image, and sometimes not painted, color and shape are not interference, but also echo each other. This unique approach is also known as the "Duffy style"". During this period, Duffy's art reached its highest point. The representative of "pasture", "", "horse racing Regatta", "Symphony" etc..
In his later years, Duffy began to simplify his painting. He gave up the contrast, replaced by a single tone of the picture control, supplemented by related small gray, color extremely simplified, but still full of tension. As he continued to explore, he said to an old friend, "I would also like to test the contrast and harmony of the tones that tradition teaches us to reject, and see what they are."
Throughout the course of Duffy's art long, we will find that in fact it is difficult to give Duffy into a fixed school, this may also be the artist's own desire, because the great artists always want to get the maximum freedom, never want to go to prison. Duffy as a teenager could have been handed down from the classical master the subtle realist techniques perfected, but he wasn't pleased with oneself, also has walk in Impressionism, Post Impressionism, Fauvism, cubism and so on, until it creates a unique "Duffy style", ushered in the artistic career of the most glorious period. However, Duffy did not stop pursuing footsteps, he absorbed nutrition from Oriental Art in simplified form, purification of color, style and change. Besides drawing, he also painted tapestries, porcelain, clothing design, free to soar in the art world.Duffy has been regarded as a master of light and color, the color of the master he achieved arbitrary, free artificial boundary. In late nineteenth Century, Manet, Pissarro and other Impressionist painters do not satisfy the classical painter of light and color of the picture began to emerge from the outdoor immutable and frozen, direct painting, looking for the true colors in nature, the color has a hitherto unknown liberation, people first from the Impressionist paintings in the taste of the true colors of nature charm. Followed by Seurat as the representative of the new Impressionism is modified to the Impressionism and scientific, the impulse and excitement of the impressionist painter to paint the scene back to the rational track, using optical principle to guide the practice of painting.
To explore the color of Impressionism and Neo impressionism compared with classical is undoubtedly a big step forward, but still limited to the color of the objective world realdescription, restricted by describing objects. Color until after the Impressionist period was truly liberated, artists painted to the color no longer adhere to the objective reality, and make the color more follow their own experience. The achievements of Impressionism in the color of Duffy inherited, he believes that "when I talk about color, that is not the natural color, but the painting color, in my palette of colors, color is light in the product, it is the greatest product in the form of painting.
If only the color as a natural color, it is not a real, profound, excellent sense of painting satisfaction." 1. (Note: see what Zhengguang with "Duffy -- depiction of light and color master", Hebei Education Press, 1998 edition.) Under his pen, color only available as free disposal tools, according to the subjective feelings and picture their overall needs, flexible deployment and drive. For example, Duffy depicted on the busy street scene and seaside amusement, usually will weaken the picture space, purification, pay more attention to the scenery of the plane and the color of the object, simply highlight by cutting out the superfluous, solemn and vivid color.
In 1906, Duffy created the "July 14th of the year of the year", depicting the bustling streets of the National Day on the streets of the city of. The same theme is also the same place for MANET, Monet, Vincent et al described, but the works of Duffy and are not the same. Duffy's flag is no longer air small color, is not used to show that Monet lively impression delicate small mixed color, but not for the strong conflict between Van Gogh soul a red and blue scar. They are the arrangement of the pure color of freedom, with its unexpected majesty, without scruple. To highlight the festive atmosphere, Duffy did not hesitate to break all the principle of proportionality, the background flag enlarged several times, thus making the red white and blue with a lyric temperament, they also become the protagonist of the picture". Then the "shadow", he is bold enough to be a large red on the whole picture of the central, free, no scruples.