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拉斐尔·桑西Raffaello Sanzio

( 文艺复兴意大利三杰之一 )

拉斐尔·桑西(1483 —1520),Raffaello Santi全名Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino,常称为拉斐尔(Raphael),意大利著名画家,也是“文艺复兴后三杰”中最年轻的一位,代表了文艺复兴时期艺术家从事理想美的事业所能达到的巅峰。
他的性情平和、文雅,创作了大量的圣母像,他的作品充分体现了安宁、协调、和谐、对称以及完美和恬静的秩序

  • 中文名拉斐尔·桑西(另译:桑蒂、桑迪
  • 外文名Raffaello Santi
  • 别名Raphael、Raffaello Sanzio
  • 性别
  • 国籍意大利
  • 出生地意大利-乌尔比诺镇
  • 出生日期1483年3月28日
  • 逝世日期1520年4月6日
  • 信仰天主教
  • 职业画家
  • 主要成就文艺复兴意大利三杰之一
  • 代表作品《西斯廷圣母》、《雅典学派》等
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生活

拉斐尔是个非常多情的男子,总是沉湎于女色。因而,当密友阿格斯蒂诺·奇基请他为私邸的第一敞廊作画时,拉斐尔却因迷恋一位情妇而忽略了这份工作。阿格斯蒂诺在友人的帮助下,费尽周折想出一个办法,他将这位女士延请至家中,安顿在拉斐尔作画的工作间,才使这幅画得以完工  。
拉斐尔人缘极好,十分懂得尊重人,据说他只要在某地待上五分钟,就会有人来求画,对此拉斐尔很少拒绝。此外,拉斐尔与达·芬奇、米开朗琪罗一样,都要效力于教皇尤利乌斯二世。但拉斐尔与尤利乌斯二世一向处得很好,而随后的利奥十世也非常喜欢拉斐尔,特地赐给他一顶红衣主教的帽子,还把红衣主教毕比印纳的一个侄女玛利亚许配给他。虽然拉斐尔对此心存不满,但他没有直接回绝,而是一直拖着这桩婚事不办,直至自己意外死亡

艺术风格

拉斐尔从小受到其父柔美细腻的画风和乌尔比诺画派的影响,走上了独创的道路。25岁之前已创作了大量圣母像,并因此闻名于世。他笔下的圣母既不是以往那种清苦的形象,也不同于威尼斯画派那些放荡不羁的圣母,她们是宁静和贤淑的女子形象,就像人间的母亲一样,洋溢着温情的人性。1504年,他来到佛罗伦萨,学习了达·芬奇的被称为“烟雾”的技巧,形成了新的风格。
拉斐尔的作品充分体现了安宁、和谐、协调、对称以及完美和恬静的秩序——从这个意义上说,他的作品确实可被称为“人文主义及文艺复兴世界的顶峰”(朱利亚诺·布里甘蒂,1988年)

后世影响

拉斐尔的画作中以描绘圣母的画幅占绝对优势,所以人们习惯上把拉斐尔与娇美柔顺的圣母形象联系在一起。他享有罗马教皇梵蒂冈宫廷画家的最大荣誉,与达·芬奇和米开朗琪罗并称为意大利文艺复兴时代的三杰,几个世纪以来,被人歌颂为最伟大的天才画家。就外观来看,拉斐尔是一位无怀疑、无苦涩的畅朗诗人、画家,而且具有极为敏捷的超人才华。他把文艺复兴时期新柏拉图主义的艺术理想,好像轻而易举地就予以形象化。
拉斐尔在美术史上对意大利文艺复兴艺术贡献之大,是任何人都不能否认的史实。虽然,拉斐尔的艺术成就,论英智与创造,他不如达芬奇;论气魄与造型,他不如米开朗琪罗;论色彩与官能,他也不如威尼斯画派,可是他却能充分发挥他综合性的艺术天才,因而他能够缔造文艺复兴时代最辉煌的艺术业绩。拉斐尔很早就吸收了前代艺术大师画风与技法的精髓,然后再把这些精髓统一在自己的实际创造里,并且将重点放在人间理想美的表现上,具体刻画了文艺复兴时代的艺术调和精神,使他成为一位温厚圆熟的人文主义艺术大师。这种理想化的美之调和,就是拉斐尔艺术的精神所在 。
拉斐尔怀抱着新柏拉图主艺术理想,以其洗练的画技,将文艺复兴的人文主义发挥到极致。虽然他留下的作品不多,其作品所展现的光华,影响后世甚远。拉斐尔从前代艺术大师们的画风的技法中撷取养分,幻化出柔和、圆润、饱满的调和之美。他的圣母系列作品,更是美术史上不可多得的杰作。拉斐尔以世俗化的手法,将传统的宗教题材描绘成现实生活中的理想美,称颂一般人类线性的光辉,洋溢着幸福与欢愉,更加体现了他的人文主义思想。拉斐尔的艺术被后世称为“古典主义”,不仅启发了巴罗克风格,也对17世纪法国的古典学派产生深远影响。就美术史的角度而言,拉斐尔不仅是文艺复兴时期的画家,更为后世开启一扇创作黄范的新窗。

English Introduction

Raphael is a very passionate man, always indulge in women. Therefore, when a close friend, dino chiquita asked him to paint for private residence first loggia, Raphael was obsessed with a mistress and ignore the job. Agger steno with the help of friends, struggled to come up with a way, he will be retained to the lady home, settle in Raphael's painting workshop, only to complete the painting.
Raphael popularity is very good, very respect people, it is said that he just spend five minutes in one place, someone will come for a picture, this little Raphael to refuse. In addition, like leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael is working for the Pope Julius ii. But Raphael and Julius ii has always been very good, and then the Leo x. like Raphael, specially gave him a cardinal's hat, also the cardinal bibby seal, a niece maria pledged to give it to him. Although rafael unhappy about this, but he did not directly rebuffed, but has been dragged the marriage is not to do, until his accidental death
Raphael was his father since childhood soft exquisite style and the impact of urbino painting, on the path of the original. Before the age of 25 has created a great number of Madonna, and therefore is known. His creation of the image of the virgin is neither in the past that kind of living, it is also different from Venetian school the virgin of the wild, they are peaceful and loving woman image, like the mother of the earth, permeated with the warmth of human nature. In 1504, he went to Florence, study the leonardo Da Vinci is known as the "smoke" technique, form a new style.
Raphael fully reflects the stability, harmony and coordination, symmetry and perfect and quiet order - in this sense, his work really can be called "humanism and the height of the Renaissance of the world" (giuliano cloth regan, 1988)Raphael's painting in order to describe the format of the landslide, so people used to place on the Raphael linked with beautiful soft image of the virgin. He holds the biggest honor of the Vatican Pope court painter, leonardo Da Vinci and Michelangelo and is called the Italian Renaissance age three jie, for centuries, was praise for the greatest genius painter. On the outside, Raphael is a no doubt, no bitter chang lang poets, painters, and has very agile superman's talent. He put the neoplatonism ideal of art during the Renaissance, visualization as easily.
Raphael contribution to Italian Renaissance art in art history, is anyone can't deny the facts. Although, Raphael's artistic achievement, the theory of the wisdom and creation, him as leonardo Da Vinci. The theory of verve and modelling, him as Michelangelo. Theory of colour and faculties, he also is inferior to Venetian school, but he can give full play to the comprehensive artistic genius, so he can create the most brilliant and Renaissance art performance. Raphael absorbed before early generation master of art the essence of painting style and techniques, and then bind the essence in their actual creation, and focusing on human performance of ideal beauty, specific features of Renaissance art spirit, make him a gentle mellow the humanism of the master of art. This idealized beauty harmony, is the art of Raphael's spirit.
Raphael was holding new Plato main artistic ideal, with its washs practice painting, the humanism of the Renaissance play to the extreme. Although he left few works, its work shows guanghua, influenced greatly. Raphael was generation techniques in the style of art masters of rip nutrient, which is soft and fruity, full of harmonic beauty. The virgin series of his works, but also the masterpiece of art history rare. Raphael to secular technique, the traditional religious subjects described as the ideal beauty in real life, bless the average human, linear light is permeated with happiness and joy, more embodies the of his humanistic thought. Raphael's art was later known as the "classical", not only inspired the baroque, also has a far-reaching influence to the 17th century French classical school. In terms of art history point of view, Raphael is not only the painter of the Renaissance, more Huang Fan open a creation of a new window.
 

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