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菲利克斯·瓦洛东Felix Vallotton

菲利克斯·瓦洛东(1865年12月28日—1865年12月29日)是一位瑞士/法国画家和版画复制匠与莱斯纳比斯有关。他是一个重要的人物在现代木刻的发展。
 

  • 性别
  • 国籍瑞士/法国
  • 出生日期1865年12月28日
  • 逝世日期1865年12月29日
  • 职业画家和版画复制匠
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中文介绍

生活和工作

他出生在一个保守的中产阶级家庭 洛桑 他参加了学院,有è葛州,在1882个经典研究的学位毕业。那一年,他搬到 巴黎 学习艺术下 朱勒-勒菲弗 古斯塔夫布朗 学院朱利安 。他在花了很多时间 罗浮宫 ,在那里他非常欣赏的作品 荷尔拜因 Dü粗面内质网 安格尔 ;这些艺术家将保持典范上一生。上最早的绘画,主要是肖像画,牢牢地扎根在学术传统。1885他画的ingresque Monsieur Ursenbach的肖像 以及他第一次画自画像 (见左图) ,并获得了荣誉奖在 法国艺术家沙龙 和1886年。

 

自画像(20岁),1885,布上油画

在接下来的十年上画,写艺术批评和提出了一些照片。1891他执行他的第一个木刻,肖像 魏尔伦 。他在19世纪90年代许多木刻画是公认的创新,建立了上作为一个真正的木刻版画作为一种艺术媒介的复兴的领袖。在西方世界,这 凸版印刷 ,在商业形式 木雕刻 长期使用,主要作为一种手段来精确地复制画或绘制的图像和照片,后来。上的木刻风格是在完全还原反对大量的未分化的黑和地区新调制的白。上强调轮廓和平面图案,一般淘汰的层次和传统的建模 孵化 。他是受 后印象派 象征主义 , 和 特别 是 由 日语 木刻:大型展览 浮世绘 照片已经出现在 美术学院 1890、和上,像他那个时代的许多艺术家的爱好者 日本风格 收集这些图片。 

 

证据的原因(the强有力的理由) ,一个 木刻 从系列 隐私 ,1898

他的木刻对象包括国内的场景,洗澡的女人,人像头,和几个图像的街道人群和示威,值得注意的是,警察攻击的无政府主义者几个场景。他通常描绘的类型而不是个人,避开强烈的情感的表达,而“融合一个尖刻的机智,如果不是图形幽默讽刺”。上的图形艺术达到其最高的发展 隐私(intimacies) 十,一系列的内部由1898出版 音乐布兰奇 ,处理男女之间的张力。上的木刻,广泛传播在期刊和图书在欧洲以及美国,并被认为是对绘画艺术的影响 爱德华·蒙克 奥布里比尔兹利 ,和 恩斯特路德维希基什内尔.

1892他是属于 那比派 ,一群年轻的艺术家,包括 波纳尔 哈维尔·卢塞尔 莫里斯·丹尼斯 ,和 爱德华维亚尔 ,谁上是形成终身的友谊。在1890年代,当上了先锋派关系密切,他的作品体现了他的创作风格,用色,平坦地区的硬边,和简化的细节。他的研究对象包括 风格 场景,人物肖像和裸体。他的Nabi风格的例子是故意尴尬 一个夏天的夜晚里 ( 1892 年 至 93 ) , 现在 在 苏黎世美术馆 ,和象征主义 月光 (1895),在 奥赛博物馆

1899上嫁给了Gabrielle Rodrigues Henriques,一个富有的年轻寡妇带着三个孩子,他在1900获得法国国籍。1899左右,他的版画活动减少他专注于绘画,开发一种清醒,经常痛苦的现实主义的艺术主流独立。伊斯 肖像 格特鲁德·斯泰因 (1907)被描绘成一个明显的反应 毕加索 “去年的肖像画,并在 Alice B. Toklas的自传 施泰因描述的非常有条理的方式,上画的,作为上如果降低窗帘帆布底工作。 

 

洗衣工,蓝色的房间 ,1900, 达拉斯艺术博物馆

上画后封神时期发现的崇拜者,和一般尊重他们的真实性和他们的技术素质,但他的风格的严重程度经常被批评。   典型的是批评家们的反应,在1910年3月23日发行的写作 新苏黎世报 ,抱怨上“油漆像个警察,像是赶形式和色彩的工作。每一个燥声…颜色缺乏所有的愉悦。” 在其不妥协的性格预示了他的艺术 新客观主义 在德国盛行的年代,有进一步的并行工作 爱德华霍珀  

 

哈维尔·卢塞尔 爱德华维亚尔 罗曼coolus vallotton,费利克斯,1899

 

评分范围 ,1919

他继续发表艺术评论,除了其他作品。他写了八个剧本,其中一些演出(1904和1907),尽管他们的评论似乎是不利的。  他还写了三本小说,包括半自传体 人生致命 (的生活),开始在1907和死后出版的。

上回应在1914的未来 第一次世界大战 志愿加入法国军队,但他拒绝了,因为他的年龄。1915–16回到木刻中首次自1901来表达自己的感情对他采取一系列, 我是War。   他最后的照片。   随后他花了三周时间在参观香槟前1917,从美术部在佣金。他制作的素描成为一组绘画的基础, souain教堂的轮廓 其中,他在其中记录和冷眼毁的景观。 在他的最后一年éLIX上集中特别是 静物 与“复合 风景 ”,由从记忆和想象的工作室的风景。总是一个多产的艺术家,在他生命的最后他已经完成了超过1700幅油画和200幅左右,除了图纸和几个雕塑数百。 他死的那一天在他第六十岁的生日,在巴黎癌症手术1925。

上的哥哥保罗是一个艺术品经销商,成立了保罗画廊上洛桑1922,继续运行很多年,他的后裔的控制下。Valloton的侄女 安妮上 《Illustrator of the 好消息圣经

 

木材gruerie和峡谷的meurissons ,1917

 

床和早餐在雾中 薄雾中的翁弗勒尔 ),1911

木刻

English is introduced

Félix Vallotton

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Félix Edouard Vallotton (December 28, 1865 – December 29, 1925) was a  Swiss / French painter and  printmaker  associated with  Les Nabis . He was an important figure in the development of the modern  woodcut .

Life and work

He was born into a conservative middle-class family in  Lausanne , and there he attended Collège Cantonal, graduating with a degree in classical studies in 1882. In that year he moved to  Paris  to study art under  Jules Joseph Lefebvre  and  Gustave Boulanger  at the  Académie Julian . He spent many hours in the  Louvre , where he greatly admired the works of  Holbein ,  Dürer  and  Ingres ; these artists would remain exemplars for Vallotton throughout his life.    Vallotton's earliest paintings, chiefly portraits, are firmly rooted in the academic tradition. In 1885 he painted the Ingresque  Portrait of Monsieur Ursenbach  as well as his first painted self-portrait  (seen at left) , which received an honorable mention at the  Salon des artistes français  in 1886.

 

Self portrait (20 years old), 1885, oil on canvas

During the following decade Vallotton painted, wrote art criticism and made a number of prints. In 1891 he executed his first woodcut, a portrait of  Paul Verlaine . The many woodcuts he produced during the 1890s were recognized as innovative, and established Vallotton as a leader in the revival of true woodcut as an artistic medium. In the western world, the  relief print , in the form of commercial  wood engraving , had long been utilized mainly as a means to accurately reproduce drawn or painted images and, latterly, photographs. Vallotton's woodcut style was novel in its starkly reductive opposition of large masses of undifferentiated black and areas of unmodulated white. Vallotton emphasized outline and flat patterns, and generally eliminated the gradations and modeling traditionally produced by  hatching . He was influenced by  post-Impressionism ,  Symbolism , and especially by the  Japanese  woodcut: a large exhibition of  ukiyo-e  prints had been presented at the  École des Beaux-Arts  in 1890, and Vallotton, like many artists of his era an enthusiast of Japonism , collected these prints. 

 

La raison probante (The Cogent Reason) , a  woodcut  from the series Intimités , 1898

His woodcut subjects included domestic scenes, bathing women, portrait heads, and several images of street crowds and demonstrations—notably, several scenes of police attacking anarchists. He usually depicted types rather than individuals, eschewed the expression of strong emotion, and "fusea graphic wit with an acerbic if not ironic humor". Vallotton's graphic art reached its highest development in  Intimités (Intimacies) , a series of ten interiors published in 1898 by the  Revue Blanche , which deal with tension between men and women.    Vallotton's woodcuts were widely disseminated in periodicals and books in Europe as well as in the United States, and have been suggested as a significant influence on the graphic art of  Edvard Munch , Aubrey Beardsley , and  Ernst Ludwig Kirchner .

By 1892 he was affiliated with  Les Nabis , a group of young artists that included Pierre Bonnard ,  Ker-Xavier Roussel ,  Maurice Denis , and  Édouard Vuillard , with whom Vallotton was to form a lifelong friendship. During the 1890s, when Vallotton was closely allied with the avant-garde, his paintings reflected the style of his woodcuts, with flat areas of color, hard edges, and simplification of detail. His subjects included  genre  scenes, portraits and nudes. Examples of his Nabi style are the deliberately awkward  Bathers on a Summer Evening  (1892–93), now in the  Kunsthaus Zürich , and the symbolist  Moonlight  (1895), in the  Musée d'Orsay .

In 1899 Vallotton married Gabrielle Rodrigues-Henriques, a wealthy young widow with three children, and in 1900 he attained French citizenship. Around 1899, his printmaking activity diminished as he concentrated on painting, developing a sober, often bitter realism independently of the artistic mainstream. His  Portrait of  Gertrude Stein  (1907) was painted as an apparent response to  Picasso 's portrait of the previous year, and in  The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas  Stein described the very methodical way in which Vallotton painted it, working from top to bottom as if lowering a curtain across the canvas. 

 

The Laundress, Blue Room , 1900,  Dallas Museum of Art

Vallotton's paintings of the post-Nabi period found admirers, and were generally respected for their truthfulness and their technical qualities, but the severity of his style was frequently criticized.  Typical is the reaction of the critic who, writing in the March 23, 1910 issue of  Neue Zürcher Zeitung , complained that Vallotton "paints like a policeman, like someone whose job it is to catch forms and colors. Everything creaks with an intolerable dryness ... the colors lack all joyfulness."    In its uncompromising character his art prefigured the  New Objectivity  that flourished in Germany during the 1920s, and has a further parallel in the work of  Edward Hopper . 

 

Ker-Xavier Roussel ,  Édouard Vuillard ,  Romain Coolus , Félix Vallotton, 1899

 

La plage à Honfleur , 1919

He continued to publish occasional art criticism, in addition to other writings. He wrote eight plays, some of which received performances (in 1904 and 1907), although their reviews appear to have been unfavorable.  He also wrote three novels, including the semi-autobiographical  La Vie meurtrière  (The Murderous Life), begun in 1907 and published posthumously.

Vallotton responded in 1914 to the coming of the  First World War  by volunteering for the French army, but he was rejected because of his age.   In 1915–16 he returned to the medium of woodcut for the first time since 1901 to express his feelings for his adopted country in the series,  This is War ,  his last prints.    He subsequently spent three weeks on a tour of the Champagne front in 1917, on a commission from the Ministry of Fine Arts. The sketches he produced became the basis for a group of paintings,  The Church of Souain in Silhouette  among them, in which he recorded with cool detachment the ruined landscape.    In his last years Félix Vallotton concentrated especially on  still lifes  and on "composite  landscapes ", landscapes composed in the studio from memory and imagination. Always a prolific artist, by the end of his life he had completed over 1700 paintings and about 200 prints, in addition to hundreds of drawings and several sculptures.  He died on the day after his 60th birthday, following cancer surgery in Paris in 1925.

Vallotton's brother Paul was an art dealer and founded the Galerie Paul Vallotton in Lausanne in 1922, which continued operation for many years under the control of his descendants. Valloton's niece was Annie Vallotton , the illustrator of the  Good News Bible .

 

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