， 和 特别 是 由
（ 1892 年 至 93 ） ， 现在 在
1899上嫁给了Gabrielle Rodrigues Henriques，一个富有的年轻寡妇带着三个孩子，他在1900获得法国国籍。1899左右，他的版画活动减少他专注于绘画，开发一种清醒，经常痛苦的现实主义的艺术主流独立。伊斯
Alice B. Toklas的自传
《Illustrator of the
女主人和仆人, 1896, oil on board, 52 x 66 cm, private collection
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Félix Edouard Vallotton (December 28, 1865 – December 29, 1925) was a
. He was an important figure in the development of the modern
Life and work
He was born into a conservative middle-class family in
, and there he attended Collège Cantonal, graduating with a degree in classical studies in 1882. In that year he moved to
to study art under
Jules Joseph Lefebvre
. He spent many hours in the
, where he greatly admired the works of
; these artists would remain exemplars for Vallotton throughout his life.
Vallotton's earliest paintings, chiefly portraits, are firmly rooted in the academic tradition. In 1885 he painted the Ingresque
Portrait of Monsieur Ursenbach
as well as his first painted self-portrait
(seen at left)
, which received an honorable mention at the
Salon des artistes français
Self portrait (20 years old), 1885, oil on canvas
During the following decade Vallotton painted, wrote art criticism and made a number of prints. In 1891 he executed his first woodcut, a portrait of
. The many woodcuts he produced during the 1890s were recognized as innovative, and established Vallotton as a leader in the revival of true woodcut as an artistic medium. In the western world, the
, in the form of commercial
, had long been utilized mainly as a means to accurately reproduce drawn or painted images and, latterly, photographs. Vallotton's woodcut style was novel in its starkly reductive opposition of large masses of undifferentiated black and areas of unmodulated white. Vallotton emphasized outline and flat patterns, and generally eliminated the gradations and modeling traditionally produced by
. He was influenced by
, and especially by the
woodcut: a large exhibition of
prints had been presented at the
École des Beaux-Arts
in 1890, and Vallotton, like many artists of his era an enthusiast of
, collected these prints.
La raison probante (The Cogent Reason)
from the series
His woodcut subjects included domestic scenes, bathing women, portrait heads, and several images of street crowds and demonstrations—notably, several scenes of police attacking anarchists. He usually depicted types rather than individuals, eschewed the expression of strong emotion, and "fusea graphic wit with an acerbic if not ironic humor". Vallotton's graphic art reached its highest development in
, a series of ten interiors published in 1898 by the
, which deal with tension between men and women.
Vallotton's woodcuts were widely disseminated in periodicals and books in Europe as well as in the United States, and have been suggested as a significant influence on the graphic art of
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
By 1892 he was affiliated with
, a group of young artists that included
, with whom Vallotton was to form a lifelong friendship. During the 1890s, when Vallotton was closely allied with the avant-garde, his paintings reflected the style of his woodcuts, with flat areas of color, hard edges, and simplification of detail. His subjects included
scenes, portraits and nudes. Examples of his Nabi style are the deliberately awkward
Bathers on a Summer Evening
(1892–93), now in the
, and the symbolist
(1895), in the
In 1899 Vallotton married Gabrielle Rodrigues-Henriques, a wealthy young widow with three children, and in 1900 he attained French citizenship. Around 1899, his printmaking activity diminished as he concentrated on painting, developing a sober, often bitter realism independently of the artistic mainstream. His
(1907) was painted as an apparent response to
's portrait of the previous year, and in
The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas
Stein described the very methodical way in which Vallotton painted it, working from top to bottom as if lowering a curtain across the canvas.
The Laundress, Blue Room
Dallas Museum of Art
Vallotton's paintings of the post-Nabi period found admirers, and were generally respected for their truthfulness and their technical qualities, but the severity of his style was frequently criticized. Typical is the reaction of the critic who, writing in the March 23, 1910 issue of
Neue Zürcher Zeitung
, complained that Vallotton "paints like a policeman, like someone whose job it is to catch forms and colors. Everything creaks with an intolerable dryness ... the colors lack all joyfulness."
In its uncompromising character his art prefigured the
that flourished in Germany during the 1920s, and has a further parallel in the work of
, Félix Vallotton, 1899
La plage à Honfleur
He continued to publish occasional art criticism, in addition to other writings. He wrote eight plays, some of which received performances (in 1904 and 1907), although their reviews appear to have been unfavorable. He also wrote three novels, including the semi-autobiographical
La Vie meurtrière
(The Murderous Life), begun in 1907 and published posthumously.
Vallotton responded in 1914 to the coming of the
First World War
by volunteering for the French army, but he was rejected because of his age.
In 1915–16 he returned to the medium of woodcut for the first time since 1901 to express his feelings for his adopted country in the series,
This is War
, his last prints.
He subsequently spent three weeks on a tour of the Champagne front in 1917, on a commission from the Ministry of Fine Arts. The sketches he produced became the basis for a group of paintings,
The Church of Souain in Silhouette
among them, in which he recorded with cool detachment the ruined landscape.
In his last years Félix Vallotton concentrated especially on
and on "composite
", landscapes composed in the studio from memory and imagination. Always a prolific artist, by the end of his life he had completed over 1700 paintings and about 200 prints, in addition to hundreds of drawings and several sculptures. He died on the day after his 60th birthday, following cancer surgery in Paris in 1925.
Vallotton's brother Paul was an art dealer and founded the Galerie Paul Vallotton in Lausanne in 1922, which continued operation for many years under the control of his descendants. Valloton's niece was
, the illustrator of the
Good News Bible