弗朗西斯·培根（Francis Bacon，1561一1626年），第一代圣阿尔本子爵（1st Viscount St Alban），英国文艺复兴时期最重要的散文家、哲学家。英国唯物主义哲学家，实验科学的创始人，是近代归纳法的创始人，又是给科学研究程序进行逻辑组织化的先驱，所以尽管他的哲学有许多地方欠圆满（如带有神学色彩和旧思想的残余），他仍旧占有永久不倒的重要地位。培根被马克思誉为“英国唯物主义和整个近代实验科学的真正始祖 ，是“实验哲学之父”，“是近代自然科学直接的或感性的缔造者”，也是现代生活精神的伟大先驱。主要著作有《新工具》、《论科学的增进》以及《学术的伟大复兴》等。
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban[a] PC KC (/ˈbeɪkən/; 22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author. He served both as Attorney General and as Lord Chancellor of England. After his death, he remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during thescientific revolution.
Bacon has been called the father of empiricism. His works argued for the possibility of scientific knowledge based only upon inductive and careful observation of events in nature. Most importantly, he argued this could be achieved by use of a skeptical and methodical approach whereby scientists aim to avoid misleading themselves. While his own practical ideas about such a method, theBaconian method, did not have a long lasting influence, the general idea of the importance and possibility of a skeptical methodology makes Bacon the father ofscientific method. This marked a new turn in the rhetorical and theoretical framework for science, the practical details of which are still central in debates about science and methodology today.
Bacon was generally neglected at court by Queen Elizabeth, but after the accession of King James I in 1603, Bacon was knighted. He was later created Baron Verulam in 1618 and Viscount St. Alban in 1621.[b] Because he had no heirs, both titles became extinct upon his death in 1626, at 65 years of age. Bacon died of pneumonia, with one account by John Aubrey stating that he had contracted the condition while studying the effects of freezing on the preservation of meat.