弗朗斯·哈尔斯Frans Hals

弗朗斯·哈尔斯Frans Hals(1582年——1666年8月26日)。荷兰画家。

人物关系
  • 中文名弗朗斯·哈尔斯
  • 外文名Frans Hals
  • 性别
  • 国籍荷兰
  • 出生地安特卫普
  • 出生日期1582年
  • 逝世日期1666年8月26日
  • 职业画家
中文介绍

传记

哈尔斯出生于1582年或1583年安特卫普商人的儿子布Franchois Fransz哈尔斯范梅赫伦(c.1542 - 1610)和他的第二任妻子Adriaentje范Geertenryck。[2]和许多人一样,哈尔斯的父母在逃跑安特卫普秋天(1584 - 1585)西班牙荷兰哈勒姆,在那里住了他的生活的其余部分。哈尔斯研究了下佛兰德的流亡卡雷尔·曼德,[2][3]谁的矫揉造作者的影响,然而,几乎没有明显的哈尔斯的工作。

1610年,哈尔斯成为的一员哈勒姆公会圣卢克,他开始挣钱作为一种艺术恢复了市议会。他工作在大型艺术收藏,卡雷尔·曼德中描述他Schilderboeck(“画家的书”)在1604年发表在哈勒姆其中最引人注目的作品Geertgen合计它们Jans,Jan van Scorel,Jan Mostaert挂在圣Janskerk哈勒姆修复工作是由哈勒姆,因为所有天主教宗教艺术被没收后satisfactie范哈勒姆已经扭转了1578年,以前给天主教徒平等权利新教徒。然而,整个的绘画收藏直到1625年才正式被市议会,在城市的父亲决定哪些画适合市政厅。剩下的艺术,被认为是“天主教”出售Cornelis van Wieringen Claesz的公会成员,条件是他删除它。在这种文化背景下,哈尔斯的职业生涯始于肖像画,因为市场已经消失了的宗教主题。

已知最早的哈尔斯的艺术的肖像Jacobus Zaffius(1611)。他的“突破”的真人大小的群像宴会的军官圣乔治民兵公司在1616年今天他最著名肖像之一勒奈·笛卡尔他在1649年。

弗朗斯·哈尔斯娶了他的第一任妻子安Harmensdochter 1610左右。然而,弗兰斯出生的天主教,所以他们的婚姻被记录在市政厅,而不是在教堂。[4]不幸的是,具体日期不详,因为旧婚姻记录的哈勒姆市政厅在1688年之前没有保存下来。[4]安的女儿出生于1590年1月2日漂白剂Harmen Dircksz和Pietertje Claesdr Ghijblant,和她的外祖父,亚麻生产商克拉斯GhijblantSpaarne 42,留下一些坟墓在圣Bavochurch都埋在这里,但弗兰斯花了40年加入他的第一任妻子。[4]安在1615年去世,他们的第三个孩子出生后不久,三,Harmen最后活了下来,一人死在哈尔斯的第二次婚姻。[4]正如传记作家西摩摘要所指出的,老弗朗斯·哈尔斯的故滥用他的第一任妻子与另一个同名的哈勒姆的居民相混淆。事实上,这些指控的时候,艺术家没有妻子虐待,安在1615年5月去世了。[5]同样,历史记载哈尔斯的倾向喝很大程度上是基于装饰轶事的他早期的传记作者,即阿诺德Houbraken现有记录等,没有直接的证据。他的第一任妻子去世后,哈尔斯的女儿鱼贩照顾他的孩子们,在1617年,他结婚Lysbeth Reyniers。他们结婚了Spaarndam外的一个小村庄结婚预告哈勒姆,因为她已经怀孕8个月。弗朗斯·哈尔斯是一个忠诚的父亲,他们有八个孩子。[6]

同时代的人如伦布兰特把他们的家庭根据顾客的反复无常,但哈尔斯仍在哈勒姆和坚持说他的客户来给他。根据哈勒姆档案schutterstuk哈尔斯开始在阿姆斯特丹是完成了Pieter Codde因为哈尔斯拒绝涂料在阿姆斯特丹,坚称民兵来哈勒姆坐在他们的肖像。出于这个原因,我们可以肯定,所有的模特都从哈勒姆或访问哈勒姆当他们的肖像。

哈尔斯的工作需求是终其一生,但他活这么长时间,他最终走出风格作为一个画家和有经验的财务困难。除了他的画,他继续在他的生活工作恢复艺术品经销商,和艺术对城市税务专家顾问。他的债权人多次把他告上法庭,他卖掉了他的财产来解决债务贝克在1652年。库存的财产被提到只有三个床垫和支持,一个大衣橱,一张桌子,和五个图片(他这些儿子都是自己,范·曼德范Heemskerck).[7]离开贫困,他得到了一个年金直辖市的200年的1664金币。

荷兰国家争取独立八十年战争,哈尔斯是当地的一个成员schutterij,一个军事公会他包括他的自画像圣尤里斯公司的1639幅画19世纪,根据其绘画框架。(它不可能证实了这一点。)这不是常见的普通成员画,作为军官,特权是保留。弗朗斯·哈尔斯画公司的三倍。哈尔斯也是当地的一员室的言辞1644年,他成为圣卢克的工会主席。

弗朗斯·哈尔斯死于1666年在哈勒姆,葬在这座城市的圣Bavo教堂他已经收到一个城市养老,这是极不寻常的,他被认为的尊重的迹象。在他死后,他的遗孀申请援助,考入当地公立救济院,她后来死的地方。

艺术生涯

哈尔斯最出名的是他的画像,主要是富有的公民等Pieter van den Broecke艾萨克·马萨他画了三次。他还画了大群的肖像当地公民卫队和当地医院的评议。他是一个荷兰黄金时代画家亲密现实主义完全免费的方法。他的照片说明社会的各个阶层:宴会或会议人员,guildsmen,当地议员从市长到职员,流动的球员和歌手,先生们,骂街,酒馆的英雄。在他的画像,等宴会的Adrian民兵圣公司的官员在1627年,哈尔斯捕获每个字符在不同的方式。不理想,清晰可辨,与他们的个性显示各种姿势和面部表情。

哈尔斯喜欢日光和银色的光泽,而伦勃朗使用金色辉光效果基于人工对比低光的无限的黑暗。两人都画家接触,但在不同的触键,伦勃朗是低音,哈尔斯的高音。哈尔斯抓住瞬间在他的臣民的生活难得的直觉。大自然显示在那一刻他彻底复制在一个微妙的颜色和规模与掌握所有形式的表达式。他变得如此聪明,准确的语气,光与影,建模得到一些标志和液体刷的中风。他成为一个受欢迎的肖像画家,画在特殊场合哈勒姆的富有。他赢了很多佣金的婚礼肖像画(丈夫通常位于左边,和妻子位于右)。他的双重肖像的新婚Olycans并排挂在利斯,但是他的许多婚礼像对已经分手,很少见面。

English Introduction

Biography

Hals was born in 1582 or 1583 in Antwerp as the son of cloth merchant Franchois Fransz Hals van Mechelen (c.1542–1610) and his second wife Adriaentje van Geertenryck.[2] Like many, Hals' parents fled during the Fall of Antwerp (1584–1585)from the Spanish Netherlands to Haarlem, where he lived for the remainder of his life. Hals studied under Flemish émigré Karel van Mander,[2][3] whose Manneristinfluence, however, is barely noticeable in Hals' work.

In 1610, Hals became a member of the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke, and he started to earn money as an art restorer for the city council. He worked on their large art collection that Karel van Mander had described in his Schilderboeck ("Painter's Book") published in Haarlem in 1604. The most notable of these were the works of Geertgen tot Sint Jans, Jan van Scorel, and Jan Mostaert that hung in the St. Janskerk in Haarlem. The restoration work was paid for by the city of Haarlem, since all Catholic religious art had been confiscated after the satisfactie van Haarlem had been reversed in 1578, which had formerly given Catholics equal rights to Protestants. However, the entire collection of paintings was not formally possessed by the city council until 1625, after the city fathers had decided which paintings were suitable for the city hall. The remaining art that was considered too "Roman Catholic" was sold to Cornelis Claesz van Wieringen, a fellow guild member, on the condition that he remove it from the city. It was in this cultural context that Hals began his career in portraiture, since the market had disappeared for religious themes.

The earliest known example of Hals' art is the portrait of Jacobus Zaffius (1611). His 'breakthrough' came with the life-sized group portrait The Banquet of the Officers of the St George Militia Company in 1616. His most noted portrait today is the one of René Descartes which he made in 1649.

Frans Hals married his first wife Anneke Harmensdochter around 1610. Frans was of Catholic birth, however, so their marriage was recorded in the city hall and not in church.[4]Unfortunately, the exact date is unknown because the older marriage records of the Haarlem city hall before 1688 have not been preserved.[4] Anneke was born 2 January 1590 as the daughter of bleacher Harmen Dircksz and Pietertje Claesdr Ghijblant, and her maternal grandfather, linen producer Claes Ghijblant of Spaarne 42, bequeathed the couple the grave in St. Bavochurch where both are buried, though Frans took over 40 years to join his first wife there.[4] Anneke died in 1615, shortly after the birth of their third child and, of the three, Harmen survived infancy and one had died before Hals' second marriage.[4] As biographer Seymour Slive has pointed out, older stories of Frans Hals abusing his first wife were confused with another Haarlem resident of the same name. Indeed, at the time of these charges, the artist had no wife to mistreat, as Anneke had died in May 1615.[5]Similarly, historical accounts of Hals' propensity for drink have been largely based on embellished anecdotes of his early biographers, namely Arnold Houbraken, with no direct evidence existing documenting such. After his first wife died, Hals took on the young daughter of a fishmonger to look after his children and, in 1617, he married Lysbeth Reyniers. They married in Spaarndam, a small village outside the banns of Haarlem, because she was already 8 months pregnant. Frans Hals was a devoted father, and they went on to have eight children.[6]

Contemporaries such as Rembrandt moved their households according to the caprices of their patrons, but Hals remained in Haarlem and insisted that his customers come to him. According to the Haarlem archives, a schutterstuk that Hals started in Amsterdam was finished by Pieter Codde because Hals refused to paint in Amsterdam, insisting that the militiamen come to Haarlem to sit for their portraits. For this reason, we can be sure that all sitters were either from Haarlem or were visiting Haarlem when they had their portraits made.

Hals' work was in demand throughout his life, but he lived so long that he eventually went out of style as a painter and experienced financial difficulties. In addition to his painting, he continued throughout his life to work as a restorer, art dealer, and art tax expert for the city councilors. His creditors took him to court several times, and he sold his belongings to settle his debt with a baker in 1652. The inventory of the property seized mentions only three mattresses and bolsters, an armoire, a table, and five pictures (these were by himself, his sons, van Mander, and Maarten van Heemskerck).[7] Left destitute, he was given an annuity of 200 florins in 1664 by the municipality.

The Dutch nation fought for independence during the Eighty Years' War, and Hals was a member of the local schutterij, a military guild. He included a self-portrait in his 1639 painting of the St. Joris company, according to its 19th-century painting frame. (It has not been possible to confirm this.) It was not common for ordinary members to be painted, as that privilege was reserved for the officers. Frans Hals painted the company three times. Hals was also a member of a local chamber of rhetoric, and in 1644 he became chairman of the Guild of St. Luke.

Frans Hals died in Haarlem in 1666 and was buried in the city's St. Bavo Church. He had been receiving a city pension, which was highly unusual and a sign of the esteem with which he was regarded. After his death, his widow applied for aid and was admitted to the local almshouse, where she later died.

Artistic career

Hals is best known for his portraits, mainly of wealthy citizens such as Pieter van den Broecke and Isaac Massa, whom he painted three times. He also painted large group portraits for local civic guards and for the regents of local hospitals. He was a Dutch Golden Age painter who practiced an intimate realism with a radically free approach. His pictures illustrate the various strata of society: banquets or meetings of officers, guildsmen, local councilmen from mayors to clerks, itinerant players and singers, gentlemen, fishwives, and tavern heroes. In his group portraits, such as The Banquet of the Officers of the St Adrian Militia Company in 1627, Hals captures each character in a different manner. The faces are not idealized and are clearly distinguishable, with their personalities revealed in a variety of poses and facial expressions.

Hals was fond of daylight and silvery sheen, while Rembrandt used golden glow effects based upon artificial contrasts of low light in immeasurable gloom. Both men were painters of touch, but of touch on different keys — Rembrandt was the bass, Hals the treble. Hals seized a moment in the life of his subjects with rare intuition. What nature displayed in that moment he reproduced thoroughly in a delicate scale of color and with mastery over every form of expression. He became so clever that exact tone, light and shade, and modeling were obtained with a few marked and fluid strokes of the brush. He became a popular portrait painter, and painted the wealthy of Haarlem on special occasions. He won many commissions for wedding portraits (the husband is traditionally situated on the left, and the wife situated on the right). His double portrait of the newly married Olycans hang side by side in the Mauritshuis, but many of his wedding portrait pairs have since been split up and are rarely seen together.

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