乔托Giotto

乔托,意大利文艺复兴时期杰出的雕刻家,画家和建筑师,被认定为是意大利文艺复兴时期的开创者和先驱者,被誉为"欧洲绘画之父"。

人物关系
  • 中文名乔托
  • 外文名Giotto
  • 性别
  • 出生地意大利韦斯皮亚诺
  • 出生日期1266年
  • 逝世日期1336年
  • 职业画家、雕刻家、建筑师
  • 代表作品《金门之会》、《犹大之吻》、《圣母登宝座图》
中文介绍

作品

早期

传统认为,乔托出生在一个农舍,也许在贴画di Romagnano或Romignano。[5]自1850年以来,塔附近的房子里考勒Vespignano生了一个斑块声称他的出生地的荣誉,断言商业宣传。然而最近的研究表明,他是出生在佛罗伦萨,铁匠的儿子。[6]他父亲的名字叫Bondone他幸存的公共记录中描述为“一个人良好的信誉”。大多数作者承认,乔托是他的真名,但它可能是一个缩写的Ambrogio(Ambrogiotto)或安吉洛(Angelotto)。[7]

他出生的年计算这一事实安东尼奥璞琪罗伦萨小镇呼的,写了一首诗在乔托的荣誉表示,他是70年去世的时候。然而,“七十”这个词融入诗的押韵比会有更长、更复杂的时代,所以可能璞琪用艺术许可证。[7]

在他的生活最优秀的画家、雕塑家和建筑师,Giorgio Vasari乔托是一个牧童,快乐、聪明的孩子被所有认识他的人爱。伟大的佛罗伦萨画家契马布艾所作发现乔托画画他的羊在一块岩石上。他们如此栩栩如生,契马布艾所作接近乔托,问他是否可以把他当学徒。[3]契马布艾所作的两个最著名的画家托斯卡纳,另一个是Duccio主要的工作锡耶纳.

瓦萨里讲述了这样的故事关于乔托的技能作为一个年轻的艺术家。他写道:有一次,当契马布艾所作缺席车间和乔托画一个非常逼真的飞行从表面上一幅契马布艾所作工作。后来当契马布艾所作回来时,他几次徒劳无功刷飞。

瓦萨里还涉及,当教皇派乔托的信使,让他送一幅画来展示他的技能,乔托画了一个红色圆圈如此完美,仿佛那是用一对指南针和指示寄给教皇的信使。信使离开不高兴,而不是怀疑,他已经做了一个傻瓜。使者带来了其他艺术家的绘画回到教皇除了乔托的。当信使有关他如何使圆没有移动他的胳膊,没有指南针的帮助教皇和他的朝臣们都惊乔托的技巧大大超过他的同时代的人。[3]

今天许多学者对乔托的培训是不确定的,并考虑瓦萨里的账户,契马布艾所作的学生他是传说,早些时候引用来源表明,乔托不是契马布艾所作的学生。[8]

上教堂的壁画在阿西西

从罗马,契马布艾所作阿西西画在新建的几家大型壁画阿西西的圣弗朗西斯教堂,它是可能的,但不确定,乔托了他。生活的壁画周期的归因上教堂的圣弗朗西斯的艺术历史上最争议之一。圣方济会修士们的文档与艺术相关的佣金在此期间被拿破仑的军队,他稳定的马匹上教堂的教会,因此学者们争论的乔托归因。没有相反的书面证据,已方便把每个壁画上教堂由乔托契马布艾所作,没有明显的声望已经盖过了几乎所有当代。

早期传记,Riccobaldo Ferrarese,提到乔托画在阿西西,没有指定圣弗朗西斯循环:“什么样的艺术乔托是证明的工作由他在阿西西的方济各会教堂,里米尼,帕多瓦……”[9]自提出的想法是德国艺术史家弗里德里希Rintelen 1912年,[10]许多学者怀疑,乔托的作者实际上是上教堂的壁画。

如果没有文档,参数在归因依赖鉴赏力,一个出了名的不可靠的“科学”;[11]然而,车间的技术检查和比较2002年在阿西西和帕多瓦的绘画过程提供了强有力的证据表明,乔托没有油漆圣弗朗西斯周期。[12]有许多差异弗朗西斯周期和竞技场教堂壁画很难占个体艺术家的风格发展。现在人们普遍认为,四个不同的手是可识别的,这些艺术家来自罗马。如果是这种情况,那么乔托的壁画在帕多瓦欠这些画家的自然主义。[7]

其他的归因

作者大量面板绘画归因于由瓦萨里乔托,其中,阿西西壁画一样广泛争议。[13]根据瓦萨里,乔托的多米尼加人最早的作品玛丽亚中篇小说这些包括报喜的壁画和巨大的暂停耶稣受难像,这是大约5米高。[3]它要追溯到1290年,被认为是当代阿西西的壁画。[14]由于早些时候作品San Giorgio真主安拉科斯塔麦当娜和孩子现在教区博物馆圣斯特诺艾尔庞特、佛罗伦萨和面板的签署弗朗西斯的气孔住在罗浮宫.

1287年,大约20岁,乔托del急切Ricevuta di说道。佩拉结婚,被称为“Ciuta”。这对夫妇有很多孩子(可能多达8个),其中一个,弗朗西斯科,成为一个画家。[7]乔托在1297 - 1300年在罗马,但今天仍有一些他的存在的痕迹。教堂,拉特兰圣约翰房子壁画周期的一小部分,画的禧年1300年被小旅店的老板八世也在这个时期乔托十二月Polyptych,现在在乌菲兹,佛罗伦萨[3]

乔托的名声作为一个画家蔓延。他被称为工作帕多瓦,也在里米尼今天,剩下的只有一个耶稣受难像画在1309年之前和守恒的圣方济各教堂.[3]这个工作影响Riminese乔尼学院的兴起和皮埃特罗达里米尼。文件显示的1301年和1304年,乔托拥有大量房地产在佛罗伦萨的这个时候,他可能已经导致一个大车间和接收佣金来自意大利。[7]

Scrovegni教堂

约1305乔托他最有影响力的执行工作,内部的壁画Scrovegni教堂帕多瓦.恩里科degli Scrovegni委托教堂作为一个家庭敬拜和埋葬的空间。[15]

的主题是救恩,这是一个重点圣母玛利亚,因为教堂是专用的报喜和处女的慈善机构。作为中世纪的常见的装饰在意大利,西墙由最后审判两侧的高坛是互补的画作天使加百列圣母玛利亚,描绘了报喜。这一幕是融入生活的周期的圣母玛丽和基督的生命。乔托的灵感为原始的生命周期可能是来自金色的传说通过雅格布da Voragine而基督的生命画上耶稣基督的生命沉思Pseudo-Bonaventura熟悉壁画更不仅仅是插图的文字,然而,学者们发现了许多来源的乔托的解释神圣的故事。[16]

序列

周期分为37场景,安排在侧墙在三层,从上注册的故事约阿希姆安娜,维珍的父母,并继续玛丽的故事。耶稣的生活占据了两个寄存器。最后判断counter-facade充满整个图像空间。

右手顶部层处理玛丽的父母的生活,离开了她的早年生活,中间层与基督的早期生活和奇迹。

层底部两边是关心基督的激情他主要在描述概要,像往常一样,从历史上看,当描绘人的重要性。他的眼睛不断指向正确的,也许是为了引导观众开始发作。犹大之吻附近的序列信号从左到右的队伍。

以下叙述场景的颜色,乔托也画七美德和同行的寓言黑白灰色。单色壁画表现为大理石雕像。此外,正义和非正义的寓言序列中间反对两个特定类型的政府:和平导致爱情的节日和暴政导致战时强奸。[17]

很多蓝色的壁画已经穿了时间了。这是因为Enrico degli Scrovegni命令,因为费用的颜料深蓝色使用蓝色,应该涂上已经干壁画(科壁画)来保护其辉煌。因为这个原因已经解体的速度比其他颜色已把石膏内的壁画。这种衰变的一个例子可以清楚地看到在基督的长袍坐在驴。

场景之间的四瓣花画的基督教的《旧约全书》的场景,就像约拿和鲸鱼比喻地对应,也许预示着基督的生命。

风格

契马布艾所作画的方式显然是中世纪,拜占庭和哥特、乔托的固体和模仿古典雕塑的风格吸引了Arnolfo迪卡:不像的契马布艾所作Duccio,乔托的数据不是程式化或拉长,不跟他同时代的拜占庭模型。他们坚定的三维,面孔和手势,基于近距离观察,在旋转形式化的布料和衣服不,但在服装挂自然形式和重量。透视缩短他还采取大胆步骤,有人物的脸向内,与他们的支持对观察者创造的幻想空间。

数据占据压缩设置与自然元素,通常使用强迫的角度来看设备,类似于舞台设计。这种相似性是增加了乔托的精心安排的数据以这样一种方式,观众似乎有一个特定的地方,甚至是参与的许多场景。这可以看到最显著的安排数据在基督的嘲笑和哀歌,观众被乔托的组合创造了出价成为另一和哀悼者的嘲笑。

著名的故事系列包括来拜》彗星样的伯利恒之星划过天空。乔托被认为是灵感来自1301年的外观哈雷彗星,导致这个名字乔托被给予1986太空探测器的彗星。

乔托的人脸描述和情感使他有别于他的同时代的人。不光彩的Joachim伤心地回到山坡上时,两个年轻牧羊人侧面看对方。的士兵拖着一个婴儿从母亲尖叫的屠杀无辜的人这样做,他的头缩进他的肩膀,一看脸上的耻辱。埃及人在路上谈论玛丽和约瑟夫乔托的现实主义,19世纪英国评论家约翰拉斯金说:“他画麦当娜和圣约瑟夫和基督,是的,无论如何……但本质上是妈妈、爸爸和孩子。”[7]

除了他的关键贡献的发展一个新的现实的视觉语言,乔托也可能是负责重新引入真正的西方艺术壁画技术。这个技术的发展允许创建更耐用的壁画以前所未有的颜色和亮度。[18]

其他作品在帕多瓦

那些壁画在帕多瓦已失去的教堂的。圣安东尼[19]宫殿德拉Ragione,[20]然而从后逗留在帕多瓦。

许多画家从意大利北部被乔托在帕多瓦的工作包括影响Guariento,准确地德”Menabuoi,雅格布Avanzi,Altichiero.

成熟的作品

从1306年到1311年乔托是在阿西西,他画壁画长的地区的教会的圣弗朗西斯教堂,包括基督的生命,方济会的寓言和Maddalena教堂,从金色的传奇故事,包括主教的肖像Teobaldo Pontano委托进行的这项工作。几个助手,包括Palerino di圭多。然而,从帕多瓦乔托的作品风格展示了发展。[7]

1311年乔托回到佛罗伦萨1313年对他的家具的文件显示,他在罗马度过了一段一段时间。现在认为他著名的设计生产Navicella马赛克的院子里古老的圣彼得大教堂1310年,红衣主教Giacomo或委托雅格布Stefaneschi现在失去了文艺复兴时期的教会,除了一些片段和一个巴洛克式的重建。根据基本的讣告至少他还设计了Stefaneschi三部曲,圣彼得的双面祭坛的装饰品,现在梵蒂冈Pinacoteca乔托或他的风格似乎不太可能正常佛罗伦萨助理,所以他可能有他的设计由罗马人的临时车间执行。[21]

Ognissanti麦当娜

主要文章:Ognissanti麦当娜

从1314 - 1327年在佛罗伦萨,文档证明他的金融活动,乔托画一祭坛的装饰品被称为Ognissanti麦当娜目前在乌菲齐美术馆展出,展出旁边契马布艾所作的圣诞Trinita麦当娜和DuccioRucellai麦当娜.[7]Ognissanti装饰画是唯一由乔托板画已经被学者公认,这尽管是非法的。这是画的教堂Ognissanti佛罗伦萨(所有圣徒),这是由一个名不见经传的宗教秩序Humiliati。[22]它是一个大型绘画(325 x 204厘米),和学者划分是否为主要的坛上的教堂,它会被认为主要是由订单的兄弟或唱诗班的屏幕,它会更容易被听众。[23]

这个时候他还画了维珍的睡着,现在柏林Gemaldegalerie的十字架Ognissanti教会.[24]

佩鲁济和巴迪在圣十字教堂

根据吉贝尔蒂所雕刻乔托画教堂,四个不同的佛罗伦萨家庭圣十字教堂,尽管他不确定哪些小教堂。[25]只有瓦萨里确定的四个教堂:巴迪弗朗西斯教堂(生活)佩鲁济教堂(圣施洗约翰的生活,福音传教士圣约翰,也许包括polyptych麦当娜与圣徒的艺术博物馆罗利,北卡罗莱纳)和失去Giugni教堂(使徒的故事)和Tosinghi卢卡雷利教堂(圣处女的故事)。[26]与几乎所有的乔托的职业生涯中,壁画装饰的日期,在圣十字生存是有争议的。巴迪教堂,立即向右的主要教堂的教会,在真正的壁画,画和一些学者的简单设置相对较近的帕多瓦,而佩鲁奇教堂的更复杂的设置建议。[27]

佩鲁济教堂毗邻巴迪教堂,很大程度上是画科。这项技术更快,但没有真正的壁画,耐用导致壁画装饰,幸存病情严重恶化。学者日期这个周期早些时候在乔托的事业看到建筑的兴趣增长扩张,它显示接近giottesque壁画的发展在教堂在阿西西,巴迪壁画有一个新的柔软的颜色表明艺术家不同的方向,可能在锡耶纳的艺术的影响下,所以必须之后。[28]

佩鲁济教堂对三个生活的壁画圣施洗约翰(约翰的出生的通告他父亲撒迦利亚;约翰的出生和命名;希律王的宴会)左边的墙上有三个场景的生活福音传教士圣约翰(以弗所的约翰的愿景;提高Drusiana;约翰的提升)右边的墙。场景的选择已经与顾客和相关弗兰西斯科人.[29]因为病情恶化的壁画,很难讨论乔托风格的教堂,虽然他的壁画表现出典型的自然主义和心理渗透控制的兴趣。佩鲁济教堂特别著名的文艺复兴时期。乔托的作品的影响马萨乔的壁画布兰卡教堂已知,米开朗基罗也是研究它们。

巴迪教堂描绘的生活圣方济各之后,类似的肖像在阿西西壁画上教堂,可以追溯到20 - 30年前。比较让明显更大的注意力由乔托表达人物和简单,让建筑形式。乔托只代表七圣的生活场景,叙事和安排是有些异常。故事开始的左上方墙与圣弗朗西斯放弃的父亲。继续在教堂右上角墙批准方济会的规则,向下移动的墙燃烧试验,在教堂左边墙再次出现在阿尔勒,左墙圣弗朗西斯的死,和死后的愿景的一次联邦铁路局阿戈斯蒂诺•阿西西的主教。弗朗西斯的描绘,按时间顺序所属出现在阿尔勒和死亡,坐落在教堂外,上面的入口拱门。这种安排鼓励观众场景联系在一起:对整个教堂壁画空间或与三合会每个墙上的壁画。这些链接显示有意义的符号不同事件之间的关系在圣弗朗西斯的生活。[30]

Stefaneschi三部曲

1320年乔托Stefaneschi三部曲,现在在梵蒂冈博物馆红衣主教Giacomo(或雅格布)盖太诺Stefaneschi。三部曲的显示圣彼得宝座上,圣人在前面,反向,基督为,与场景的框架殉道圣徒彼得保罗这是为数不多的作品由乔托的公司委员会存在的证据。红衣主教也委托乔托装饰圣彼得大教堂和一个周期的拱点壁画的16世纪期间被摧毁的改造。根据瓦萨里,乔托留在罗马六年,随后收到大量的佣金在意大利,在教皇的宝座阿维尼翁,尽管其中一些作品现在公认的其他艺术家。

English Introduction

Works

Early years

Tradition holds that Giotto was born in a farmhouse, perhaps at Colle di Romagnano or Romignano.[5] Since 1850, a tower house in nearby Colle Vespignano has borne a plaque claiming the honor of his birthplace, an assertion commercially publicized. However recent research has suggested that he was actually born in Florence, the son of a blacksmith.[6] His father's name was Bondone and he is described in surviving public records as "a person of good standing". Most authors accept that Giotto was his real name, but it may have been an abbreviation of Ambrogio (Ambrogiotto) or Angelo (Angelotto).[7]

The year of his birth is calculated from the fact that Antonio Pucci, the town crier of Florence, wrote a poem in Giotto's honour in which it is stated that he was 70 at the time of his death. However, the word "seventy" fits into the rhyme of the poem better than would have a longer and more complex age, so it is possible that Pucci used artistic license.[7]

In his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, Giorgio Vasari states that Giotto was a shepherd boy, a merry and intelligent child who was loved by all who knew him. The great Florentine painterCimabue discovered Giotto drawing pictures of his sheep on a rock. They were so lifelike that Cimabue approached Giotto and asked if he could take him on as an apprentice.[3] Cimabue was one of the two most highly renowned painters of Tuscany, the other being Duccio, who worked mainly in Siena.

Vasari recounts a number of such stories about Giotto's skill as a young artist. He writes of on one occasion when Cimabue was absent from the workshop and Giotto painted a remarkably lifelike fly on the face of a painting Cimabue was working on. Later when Cimabue returned, he tried in vain several times to brush the fly off.

Vasari also relates that when the Pope sent a messenger to Giotto, asking him to send a drawing to demonstrate his skill, Giotto drew a red circle so perfect that it seemed as though it was drawn using a pair of compasses and instructed the messenger to send it to the Pope. The messenger departed ill pleased, not doubting that he had been made a fool of. The messenger brought other artists' drawings back to the Pope in addition to Giotto's. When the messenger related how he had made the circle without moving his arm and without the aid of compasses the Pope and his courtiers were amazed at how Giotto's skill greatly surpassed all of his contemporaries.[3]

Many scholars today are uncertain about Giotto's training, and consider Vasari's account that he was Cimabue's pupil as legend, citing earlier sources which suggest that Giotto was not Cimabue's pupil.[8]

Frescoes of the Upper Church at Assisi

From Rome, Cimabue went to Assisi to paint several large frescoes at the newly built Basilica of St Francis of Assisi, and it is possible, but not certain, that Giotto went with him. The attribution of the fresco cycle of the Life of St. Francis in the Upper Church has been one of the most disputed in art history. The documents of the Franciscan Friars that relate to artistic commissions during this period were destroyed by Napoleon's troops, who stabled horses in the Upper Church of the Basilica, thus scholars have debated over the Giotto attribution. In the absence of documentary evidence to the contrary, it has been convenient to ascribe every fresco in the Upper Church that was not obviously by Cimabue to Giotto, whose prestige has overshadowed that of almost every contemporary.

An early biographical source, Riccobaldo Ferrarese, mentions that Giotto painted at Assisi, without specifying the St Francis Cycle: "What kind of art [Giotto] made is testified to by works done by him in the Franciscan churches at Assisi, Rimini, Padua..."[9] Since the idea was put forward by the German art historian, Friedrich Rintelen in 1912,[10] many scholars have expressed doubt that Giotto was in fact the author of the Upper Church frescoes.

Without documentation, arguments on the attribution have relied upon connoisseurship, a notoriously unreliable "science";[11] however, technical examinations and comparisons of the workshop painting processes at Assisi and Padua in 2002 have provided strong evidence that Giotto did not paint the St. Francis Cycle.[12] There are many differences between the Francis Cycle and the Arena Chapel frescoes that are difficult to account for by the stylistic development of an individual artist. It is now generally accepted that four different hands are identifiable and that these artists came from Rome. If this is the case, then Giotto's frescoes at Padua owe much to the naturalism of these painters.[7]

Other attributions

The authorship of a large number of panel paintings ascribed to Giotto by Vasari, among others, is as broadly disputed as the Assisi frescoes.[13] According to Vasari, Giotto's earliest works were for the Dominicans at Santa Maria Novella. These include a fresco of The Annunciation and the enormous suspended Crucifix, which is about 5 meters high.[3] It has been dated to about 1290 and is thought to be contemporary with the Assisi frescoes.[14] Earlier attributed works are the San Giorgio alla Costa Madonna and Child now in the Diocesan Museum of Santo Stefano al Ponte, Florence, and the signed panel of the Stigmata of St. Francis housed in the Louvre.

In 1287, at the age of about 20, Giotto married Ricevuta di Lapo del Pela, known as "Ciuta". The couple had numerous children (perhaps as many as eight), one of whom, Francesco, became a painter.[7] Giotto worked in Rome in 1297–1300, but few traces of his presence there remain today. The Basilica of St. John Lateran houses a small portion of a fresco cycle, painted for the Jubilee of 1300 called by Boniface VIII. In this period Giotto also painted the Badia Polyptych, now in the Uffizi, Florence.[3]

Giotto's fame as a painter spread. He was called to work in Padua, and also in Rimini, where today there remains only a Crucifix painted before 1309 and conserved in the Church of St. Francis.[3] This work influenced the rise of the Riminese school of Giovanni and Pietro da Rimini. According to documents of 1301 and 1304, Giotto by this time possessed large estates in Florence, and it is probable that he was already leading a large workshop and receiving commissions from throughout Italy.[7]

Scrovegni Chapel

Around 1305 Giotto executed his most influential work, the interior frescoes of the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua.Enrico degli Scrovegni commissioned the chapel to serve as a family worship and burial space.[15]

The theme is Salvation, and there is an emphasis on the Virgin Mary, as the chapel is dedicated to theAnnunciation and to the Virgin of Charity. As is common in the decoration of the medieval period in Italy, the west wall is dominated by the Last Judgement. On either side of the chancel are complementary paintings of the Angel Gabriel and the Virgin Mary, depicting the Annunciation. This scene is incorporated into the cycles of The Life of the Blessed Virgin Mary and The Life of Christ. Giotto's inspiration for The Life of the Virgin cycle was probably taken from The Golden Legend by Jacopo da Voragine while The Life of Christdraws upon the Meditations on the Life of Jesus Christ by the Pseudo-Bonaventura. The frescoes are more than mere illustrations of familiar texts, however, and scholars have found numerous sources for Giotto's interpretations of sacred stories.[16]

Sequence

The cycle is divided into 37 scenes, arranged around the lateral walls in three tiers, starting in the upper register with the story of Joachim and Anna, the parents of the Virgin, and continuing with the story of Mary. The life of Jesus occupies two registers. The Last Judgment fills the entire pictorial space of the counter-façade.

The top right hand tier deals with the lives of Mary's parents, the left with her early life, and the middle tier with the early life and miracles of Christ.

The bottom tier on both sides is concerned with the Passions of Christ. He is depicted mainly in profile, as is customary, historically, when depicting persons of importance. His eyes point continuously to the right, perhaps to guide the viewer onwards in the episodes. The kiss of Judas near the end of the sequence signals the close of this left-to-right procession.

Below the narrative scenes in color, Giotto also painted the allegories of seven Virtues and their counterparts in monochrome gray. The monochrome frescoes appear as marble statues. Furthermore, the allegories of Justice andInjustice in the middle of the sequence oppose two specific types of government: peace leading to a festival of Love and tyranny resulting in wartime rape.[17]

Much of the blue in the fresco has been worn away by time. This is because Enrico degli Scrovegni ordered that, because of the expense of the pigment ultramarine blue used, it should be painted on top of the already dry fresco (secco fresco) to preserve its brilliance. For this reason it has disintegrated faster than the other colors which have been fastened within the plaster of the fresco. An example of this decay can clearly be seen on the robe of Christ as he sits on the donkey.

Between the scenes are quatrefoil paintings of Old Testament scenes, like Jonah and the Whale that allegorically correspond and perhaps foretell the life of Christ.

Style

While Cimabue painted in a manner that is clearly Medieval, having aspects of both the Byzantine and the Gothic, Giotto's style draws on the solid and classicizing sculpture of Arnolfo di Cambio. Unlike those by Cimabue and Duccio, Giotto's figures are not stylized or elongated and do not follow the Byzantine models of his contemporaries. They are solidly three-dimensional, have faces and gestures that are based on close observation, and are clothed not in swirling formalized drapery, but in garments that hang naturally and have form and weight. He also took bold steps in foreshortening and with having characters face inwards, with their backs towards the observer creating the illusion of space.

The figures occupy compressed settings with naturalistic elements, often using forced perspective devices so that they resemble stage sets. This similarity is increased by Giotto's careful arrangement of the figures in such a way that the viewer appears to have a particular place and even an involvement in many of the scenes. This can be seen most markedly in the arrangement of the figures in the Mocking of Christ andLamentation where the viewer is bidden by the composition that Giotto has created to become mocker in one and mourner in the other.

Famous narratives in the series include the Adoration of the Magi, in which a comet-like Star of Bethlehemstreaks across the sky. Giotto is thought to have been inspired by the 1301 appearance of Halley's comet, which led to the name Giotto being given to a 1986 space probe to the comet.

Giotto's depiction of the human face and emotion sets his work apart from that of his contemporaries. When the disgraced Joachim returns sadly to the hillside, the two young shepherds look sideways at each other. The soldier who drags a baby from its screaming mother in the Massacre of the Innocents does so with his head hunched into his shoulders and a look of shame on his face. The people on the road to Egypt gossip about Mary and Joseph as they go. Of Giotto's realism, the 19th-century English critic John Ruskin said "He painted the Madonna and St. Joseph and the Christ, yes, by all means ... but essentially Mamma, Papa and Baby."[7]

Besides his pivotal contribution to the development of a new realistic visual language, Giotto might have been also responsible for the reintroduction of true fresco technique to Western art. This technological development allowed the creation of more durable murals with unprecedented colors and brilliance.[18]

Other works in Padua

Among those frescoes in Padua which have been lost are those in the Basilica of. St. Anthony[19] and the Palazzo della Ragione,[20] which are however from a later sojourn in Padua.

Numerous painters from northern Italy were influenced by Giotto's work in Padua including Guariento, Giusto de' Menabuoi, Jacopo Avanzi, andAltichiero.

Mature works

From 1306 to 1311 Giotto was in Assisi, where he painted frescoes in the transept area of the Lower Church of the Basilica of St. Francis, including The Life of Christ, Franciscan Allegories and the Maddalena Chapel, drawing on stories from the Golden Legend and including the portrait of bishop Teobaldo Pontano who commissioned the work. Several assistants are mentioned, including one Palerino di Guido. However, the style demonstrates developments from Giotto's work at Padua.[7]

In 1311 Giotto returned to Florence. A document from 1313 about his furniture there shows that he had spent a period in Rome some time before. It is now thought that he produced the design for the famous Navicellamosaic for the courtyard of the Old St. Peter's Basilica in 1310, commissioned by Cardinal Giacomo orJacopo Stefaneschi and now lost to the Renaissance church, except for some fragments and a Baroquereconstruction. According to the cardinal's necrology he also at least designed the Stefaneschi Triptych, a double-sided altarpiece for St. Peter's, now in the Vatican Pinacoteca. But the style seems unlikely for either Giotto or his normal Florentine assistants, so he may have had his design executed by an ad hoc workshop of Romans.[21]

Ognissanti Madonna

Main article: Ognissanti Madonna

In Florence, where documents from 1314–1327 attest to his financial activities, Giotto painted an altarpiece known as the Ognissanti Madonna which is now on display in the Uffizi where it is exhibited beside Cimabue's Santa Trinita Madonna and Duccio's Rucellai Madonna.[7] The Ognissanti altarpiece is the only panel painting by Giotto that has been universally accepted by scholars, and this despite the fact that it is undocumented. It was painted for the church of the Ognissanti (all saints) in Florence, which was built by an obscure religious order known as the Humiliati.[22] It is a large painting (325 x 204 cm), and scholars are divided on whether it was made for the main altar of the church, where it would have been viewed primarily by the brothers of the order or for the choir screen, where it would have been more easily seen by a lay audience.[23]

At this time he also painted the Dormition of the Virgin, now in the Berlin Gemäldegalerie and the Crucifixin the Church of Ognissanti.[24]

Peruzzi and Bardi Chapels at Santa Croce

According to Lorenzo Ghiberti, Giotto painted chapels for four different Florentine families in the church of Santa Croce, although he does not identify which chapels they were.[25] It is only with Vasari that the four chapels are identified: the Bardi Chapel (Life of St. Francis), the Peruzzi Chapel (Life of St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist, perhaps including a polyptych of Madonna with Saints now in the Museum of Art of Raleigh, North Carolina) and the lost Giugni Chapel (Stories of the Apostles) and the Tosinghi Spinelli Chapel (Stories of the Holy Virgin).[26] As with almost everything in Giotto's career, the dates of the fresco decorations that survive in Santa Croce are disputed. The Bardi Chapel, immediately to the right of the main chapel of the church, was painted in true fresco, and to some scholars the simplicity of its settings seems relatively close to those of Padua, while the Peruzzi Chapel's more complex settings suggest a later date.[27]

The Peruzzi Chapel is adjacent to the Bardi Chapel and was largely painted a secco. This technique, quicker but less durable than true fresco, has resulted in a fresco decoration that survives in a seriously deteriorated condition. Scholars who date this cycle earlier in Giotto's career see the growing interest in architectural expansion that it displays as close to the developments of the giottesque frescoes in the Lower Church at Assisi, while the Bardi frescoes have a new softness of color that indicates the artist going in a different direction, probably under the influence of Sienese art, and so must be later.[28]

The Peruzzi Chapel pairs three frescoes from the life of St. John the Baptist(The Annunciation of John's Birth to his father Zacharias; The Birth and Naming of John; The Feast of Herod) on the left wall with three scenes from the life of St. John the Evangelist (The Visions of John on Ephesus; The Raising of Drusiana; The Ascension of John) on the right wall. The choice of scenes has been related to both the patrons and the Franciscans.[29] Because of the deteriorated condition of the frescoes, it is difficult to discuss Giotto's style in the chapel, although the frescoes show signs of his typical interest in controlled naturalism and psychological penetration. The Peruzzi Chapel was especially renowned during Renaissance times. Giotto's compositions influenced Masaccio's frescos at the Brancacci Chapel, and Michelangelo is also known to have studied them.

The Bardi Chapel depicts the life of St. Francis, following a similar iconography to the frescoes in the Upper Church at Assisi, dating from 20–30 years earlier. A comparison makes apparent the greater attention given by Giotto to expression in the human figures and the simpler, better-integrated architectural forms. Giotto represents only seven scenes from the saint's life here, and the narrative is arranged somewhat unusually. The story starts on the upper left wall with St. Francis Renounces his Father.It continues across the chapel to the upper right wall with the Approval of the Franciscan Rule, moves down the right wall to the Trial by Fire, across the chapel again to the left wall for the Appearance at Arles,down the left wall to the Death of St. Francis, and across once more to the posthumous Visions of Fra Agostino and the Bishop of Assisi. The Stigmatization of St. Francis, which chronologically belongs between the Appearance at Arles and the Death, is located outside the chapel, above the entrance arch. This arrangement encourages viewers to link scenes together: to pair frescoes across the chapel space or relate triads of frescoes along each wall. These linkings suggest meaningful symbolic relationships between different events in St. Francis's life.[30]

Stefaneschi Triptych

In 1320 Giotto painted the Stefaneschi Triptych, now in the Vatican Museum, for Cardinal Giacomo (or Jacopo) Gaetano Stefaneschi. The triptych shows St Peter enthroned, with saints on the front, and on the reverse, Christ enthroned, framed with scenes of the martyrdom of Saints Peter and Paul. This is one of the few works by Giotto for which firm evidence of a commission exists. The cardinal also commissioned Giotto to decorate the apse of St. Peter's Basilica with a cycle of frescoes that were destroyed during the 16th century renovation. According to Vasari, Giotto remained in Rome for six years, subsequently receiving numerous commissions in Italy and in the Papal seat at Avignon, though some of these works are now recognized to be by other artists.

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