朱塞佩 · 玛丽亚 · 克雷斯皮Giuseppe Maria Crespi

朱塞佩 · 玛丽亚 · 克雷斯皮Giuseppe Maria Crespi(1665年3月14日——1747年7月16日),意大利画家。

  • 中文名朱塞佩 · 玛丽亚 · 克雷斯皮
  • 外文名Giuseppe Maria Crespi
  • 性别
  • 国籍意大利
  • 出生地博洛尼亚
  • 出生日期1665年3月14日
  • 逝世日期1747年7月16日
  • 职业画家


Crespi出生在博洛尼亚Girolamo Crespi和伊莎贝拉Cospi。他的母亲是一个遥远的高贵Cospi家族的关系,佛罗伦萨的关系美第奇他绰号“西班牙人”(Lo Spagnuolo)因为他的习惯穿紧身的衣服西班牙时尚的特征。

到12岁,他做学徒安吉洛米歇尔·托尼(1640 - 1708)。从15岁,他在波伦亚的工作多梅尼科玛丽亚Canuti罗马的画家卡洛Maratti在访问博洛尼亚,据说邀请Crespi在罗马工作,但Crespi拒绝。波伦亚人Maratti的朋友卡洛Cignani邀请Crespi在1681 - 82年加入一个学院del Nudo为目的的学习画画,他留在工作室,直到1686年Cignani搬迁Forli和他的工作室被Canuti最杰出的学生,乔凡尼安东尼奥Burrini从这个时间因此,Crespi独立于其他艺术家的工作。

他主要的传记作家Giampietro到的Crespi表示:“(他)再也没有想要钱,他会走进他的想象力的故事和反复无常。经常还他画常见的东西,代表最低的职业,和人,出生贫困,必须维持自己在服务的要求富裕的公民”。为Crespi自己,于是他开始职业生涯服务与艺术品富有的赞助人。据说他有一个相机视绘画在他家里。到1690年代,他已完成各种圣坛雕刻,包括《圣安东尼的诱惑委托进行计数卡罗切萨雷·瓦,现在在圣尼可拉·degli Albari.

他旅行威尼斯在罗马,但令人惊讶的是,没有。着他大宗教的画布屠杀的无辜并从统计报告Vincenzo Rannuzi Cospi作为一个介绍,Crespi逃离在半夜弗洛伦斯1708年,获得了大公爵的赞助费迪南·德·美第奇他被迫逃离博洛尼亚的画布,而用于公爵,被当地的牧师,幻想没有卡洛席尔瓦为自己。围绕这一事件的事件成为了诉讼的对象,Crespi,至少在未来五年,发现公爵坚定的守护者。



一个著名的系列油画,七圣礼了1712年左右,现在挂在Gemaldegalerie,德累斯顿它最初是为基本完成Pietro Ottoboni在罗马,死后,他通过的选民萨克森这些壮丽的作品是画着一个松散的一笔,但仍然保持清醒的虔诚。没有利用僧侣的符号如圣徒和丘比特、他们利用常见的民间说明神圣的活动。


今天Crespi而闻名的一个主要的支持者在意大利巴洛克风俗画。直到17世纪,意大利人很少关注这些主题,主要集中在大的图像从宗教、神话、历史,以及强大的肖像画。在这个他们不同于北欧人,特别是荷兰画家,有强烈的传统在日常活动的描述。有例外:泰坦波伦亚的巴洛克风格的壁画,Annibale Carracci,田园风光画,描绘等普通商人的屠夫。在他之前,巴特洛Passerotti[1]和对阵Vincenzo皮[2]在题材不以为然。在这个传统,Crespi也遵循的先例市井在罗马,主要是荷兰画家活跃。随后这一传统也会支持的Piazzetta,Pietro Longhi,Giacomo Ceruti迈Tiepolo等等。

他画了很多厨房的场景[3]和其他国内主题。跳蚤的绘画(1709 - 10)描绘了一个年轻女子准备对睡眠和所谓的梳理唠叨害虫在她的人。环境是squalid-nearby一个花瓶和一些花和一个廉价的珠子项链晃来晃去的但是她子宫庇护在温柔的光。她不是一个Botticellian美,但一个凡人,她供玩赏用床单上睡着了。



真正的他折衷主义是自然的约翰Nepomuk斯瓦比亚的承认女王,在Crespi的生命。在这幅画里,被部分屏蔽的脸说。基督的复活是一个戏剧性的安排在动态视角,有些影响Annibale Carracci装饰画的相同的主题。

虽然许多来到工作室工作,Crespi Cignani离开后,几个变得引人注目。安东尼奥Gionima是比较成功的。其他的还包括:乔凡尼Francesco Braccioli;Giacomo帕维亚;乔凡尼Morini;码头Guariente;菲利斯和他的兄弟雅格布GiustiTerzi Cristoforo.他可能也有影响乔凡尼Domenico Ferretti)而威尼斯Giovanni Battista Piazzetta声称过Crespi,文档是不存在的。

Crespi的两个儿子,安东尼(1712 - 1781)路易(1708 - 1779)成为画家。根据他们的帐户,Crespi可能使用暗箱援助在晚年的户外场景的描述。他的妻子死后,他成为了隐居,很少离开家去除了日常质量。


English Introduction


Crespi was born in Bologna to Girolamo Crespi and Isabella Cospi. His mother was a distant relation of the noble Cospi family, which had ties to the Florentine House of Medici. He was nicknamed "the Spanish One" (Lo Spagnuolo) because of his habit of wearing tight clothes characteristic of Spanish fashion of the time.

By age 12 years, he apprenticed with Angelo Michele Toni (1640–1708). From the age of 15–18 years, he worked under the Bolognese Domenico Maria Canuti. The Roman painter Carlo Maratti, on a visit to Bologna, is said to have invited Crespi to work in Rome, but Crespi declined. Maratti's friend, the Bolognese Carlo Cignani invited Crespi in 1681–82 to join anAccademia del Nudo for the purpose of studying drawing, and he remained in that studio until 1686, when Cignani relocated toForlì and his studio was taken over by Canuti's most prominent pupil, Giovanni Antonio Burrini. From this time hence, Crespi worked independently of other artists.

His main biographer, Giampietro Zanotti, said of Crespi: "(He) never again wanted for money, and he would make the stories and caprices that came into his imagination. Very often also he painted common things, representing the lowest occupations, and people who, born poor, must sustain themselves in serving the requirements of wealthy citizens". Thus it was for Crespi himself, as he began a career servicing wealthy patrons with artwork. He is said to have had a camera optica in his house for painting.[1] By the 1690s he had completed various altarpieces, including a Temptation of Saint Anthony commissioned by Count Carlo Cesare Malvasia, now in San Niccolò degli Albari.

He journeyed to Venice, but surprisingly, never to Rome. Bearing his large religious canvas of Massacre of the Innocents and a note from Count Vincenzo Rannuzi Cospi as an introduction, Crespi fled in the middle of the night to Florence in 1708, and gained the patronage of the Grand Duke Ferdinand I de' Medici. He had been forced to flee Bologna with the canvas, which while intended for the Duke, had been fancied by a local priest,Don Carlo Silva for himself. The events surrounding this episode became the source of much litigation, in which Crespi, at least for the next five years, found the Duke a firm protector.

An eclectic artist, Crespi was a portrait painter and a brilliant caricaturist, and was also known for his etchings after Rembrandt and Salvator Rosa. He could be said to have painted a number of masterpieces in different styles. He painted few frescoes, in part because he refused to paint for quadraturists, though in all likelihood, his style would not have matched the requirements of a medium then often used for grandiloquent scenography. He was not universally appreciated, Lanzi quotes Mengs as lamenting that the Bolognese school should close with the capricious Crespi. Lanzi himself describes Crespi as allowing his "turn for novelty at length to lead his fine genius astray". He found Crespi included caricature in even scriptural or heroic subjects, he cramped his figures, he "fell in to mannerism", and painted with few colors and few brushstrokes, "employed indeed with judgement but too superficial and without strength of body".

The Seven Sacraments

One celebrated series of canvases, the Seven Sacraments, was painted around 1712, and now hangs in the Gemäldegalerie,Dresden. It was originally completed for Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni in Rome, and upon his death passed to the Elector ofSaxony. These imposing works are painted with a loose brushstroke, but still maintain a sober piety. Making no use of hieratic symbols such as saints and putti, they utilize commonplace folk to illustrate sacramental activity.

Crespi and the genre style

Crespi is best known today as one of the main proponents of baroque genre painting in Italy. Italians, until the 17th century, had paid little attention to such themes, concentrating mainly on grander images from religion, mythology, and history, as well as portraiture of the mighty. In this they differed from Northern Europeans, specifically Dutch painters, who had a strong tradition in the depiction of everyday activities. There were exceptions: the Bolognese Baroque titan of fresco, Annibale Carracci, had painted pastoral landscapes, and depictions of homely tradespeople such as butchers. Before him,Bartolomeo Passerotti [1] and the Cremonese Vincenzo Campi [2] had dallied in genre subjects. In this tradition, Crespi also followed the precedents set forth by theBamboccianti, mainly Dutch genre painters active in Rome. Subsequently this tradition would also be upheld by Piazzetta, Pietro Longhi, Giacomo Ceruti and Giandomenico Tiepolo to name a few.

He painted many kitchen scenes [3] and other domestic subjects. The painting of The Flea(1709–10) depicts a young woman readying for sleep and supposedly grooming for a nagging pest on her person. The environs are squalid—nearby are a vase with a few flowers and a cheap bead necklace dangling on the wall—but she is sheltered in a tender womb of light. She is not a Botticellian beauty, but a mortal, her lapdog asleep on the bed-sheets.

In another genre scene, Crespi captures the anger of a woman at a man publicly urinating on wall, with a picaresque cat also objecting to the man's indiscretion.

Later works and pupils

True to his eclecticism, is the naturalistic St John Nepomuk confessing the Queen of Swabia, made late in Crespi's life. In this painting, much is said by partially shielded faces. His Resurrection of Christ is a dramatic arrangement in dynamic perspectives, somewhat influenced by Annibale Carracci's altarpiece of the same subject.

While many came to work in the studio, Crespi established after Cignani's departure, few became notable. Antonio Gionima was moderately successful. Others included Giovanni Francesco Braccioli; Giacomo Pavia; Giovanni Morini; Pier Guariente; Feliceand his brother Jacopo Giusti[3] and Cristoforo Terzi.[4] He may also have influenced Giovanni Domenico Ferretti. While the Venetian Giovanni Battista Piazzetta claimed to have studied under Crespi, the documentation for this is nonexistent.

Two of Crespi's sons, Antonio (1712–1781) and Luigi (1708–1779) became painters. According to their account, Crespi may have used a camera obscura to aid in depiction of outdoor scenes in his later years. After his wife's death, he became reclusive, rarely leaving the house except to go to daily mass.

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