文森特·梵高Gogh, Vincent van1853年03月30日-1890年07月29日荷兰后印象派画家，出生于新教牧师家庭。他早期只以灰暗色系进行创作，直到他看到了当时在巴黎很流行的日本浮世绘以及在当地遇见了印象派与新印象派，他将他们的鲜艳色彩与画风试着融入在自己的画作中，之后便创造了他独特的个人画风。在他去世之后，他的作品《星夜》、《向日葵》与《麦田乌鸦》等，已跻身于全球最著名最珍贵的艺术作品的行列。
1882年8月西奥给文森特的钱买材料工作在练习。文森特写道,他现在可以“继续绘画新活力”。从1883年初他multi-figure成分。他其中的一些照片,但当他的兄弟说,他们缺乏活力和新鲜,他摧毁了他们,变成了油画。梵高著名海牙国际学校艺术家喜欢Weissenbruch和Blommers收到他们的技术建议,以及从画家De烈性黑啤酒和Van der Weele海牙,艺术家的学校的第二代。当他搬到Nuenen德伦特的时期之后,他开始几家大型绘画但摧毁了大部分。吃土豆的人及其同伴是唯一幸存。后参观博物馆,梵高是意识到他的许多故障是由于缺乏经验和技术专长,1885年11月,他前往安特卫普,后来巴黎学习和发展他的技能。
从这一时期其他作品包括橄榄树的Alpilles背景(1889年),大约在一封给他的弟弟,梵高写道,“最后我和橄榄,景观”柏(1889),柏(1889 - 90)和两个数字,和路与柏树和明星(1890)。虽然在Saint-Remy庇护,梵高花时间外画树在橄榄园的照片。这些都是呈现错杂,关节炎的自然世界的化身,这是,据休斯,充满了“连续能源领域的自然是一个表现”。
西奥死于1891年1月,去除文森特最直言不讳和人脉广泛的冠军。西奥的遗孀Johanna van Gogh-Bonger是她二十多岁的荷兰女性不知道她的丈夫或她姐夫和很长时间,突然不得不照顾数百绘画、信件和图纸,以及她年幼的儿子,文森特·威廉梵高。高更不倾向于提供帮助在促进梵高的声誉,和约翰娜的弟弟安德利bong似乎也不冷不热的对他的工作。Aurier,梵高的最早的支持者之一,在批评中,死于伤寒1892年,27岁。
1901年在巴黎举行了一个盛大的梵高回顾Bernheim-Jeune画廊,而兴奋安德烈Derain和莫里斯·德Vlaminck,导致了野兽派的出现。重要展览的举行Sonderbund艺术家在1912年科隆军械库艺术博览会1913年,纽约,1914年柏林。Henk Bremmer在教学和谈论梵高,并介绍了海琳米勒梵高的艺术,她成为他的一个狂热的收藏家。早期的人物德国表现主义如埃米尔Nolde承认债务凡高的作品。布雷默协助雅各Baart delaFaille,他的目录分类L菜de文森特·梵高于1928年问世。
梵高的作品世界最昂贵的画。那些卖了美元1亿(今天的)包括《加歇博士,约瑟夫Roulin的画像和虹膜。的大都会艺术博物馆的版本麦田与柏在1993年以1993美元收购。2015年L 'Allee des Alyscamps卖美国6630万美元的价格在苏富比纽约,超过4000万美元的储备。
梵高的侄子和同名文森特•威廉姆•梵高(1890 - 1978)他母亲的死后继承了房地产在1925年。在1950年代初他安排一个完整版的出版的信件提出了四卷和几种语言。然后他开始与荷兰政府补贴谈判基础购买和房子整个集合。西奥的儿子参与规划项目,希望将展示在最好的条件下工作。这个项目始于1963年,建筑师Gerrit里特维德委托设计,1964年他死后黑川纪章大师负责。工作进展在整个1960年代,以1972年为目标的盛大开幕。
Vincent Van Gogh was born on March 30, 1853, in the Catholic province of North Brabant in the south of the Netherlands. He is the oldest surviving child, Theo van Gogh, a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, Anna Cornelia carbentus. Van Gogh was the name of his grandfather, and a brother died a year before he was born. The Vincent Van Gogh family is a common name: his grandfather, Vincent (1789 - 1874), received a theological degree from Leiden University in 1811, and had six sons and three became art dealers. This Vincent may be named his uncle, sculptor (1729 - 1802).
Van Gogh's mother came from a wealthy family in the Hague, and his father was the youngest son of a priest. [when they met Anna's sister, Cornelia, Vincent, brother of married theo. Van Gogh's parents married in May 1851 and moved to Zundert. His brother Theo was born on May 1, 1857. There is also a brother, my God, and three sisters: Elizabeth, Anna, and willemina (known as the "will"). In his later years, Van Gogh had only willemina to keep in touch with Theo. Van Gogh's mother was a rigid and religious woman who stressed the importance of family claustrophobia to the people around her. The salary of the Special Olympics is moderate, but the Church provides a house, a maid, two cooks, a gardener, a carriage and a horse for the family. Anna instills in the children the responsibility to maintain the social status of the family.
Van Gogh is a serious and thoughtful child. He was educated and tutored at home by his mother and sent to a rural school in 1860. In 1864, he was placed in a boarding school, Zevenbergen, where he felt abandoned and campaigned to go home. On the contrary, in 1866, his parents sent him to Tilburg middle school, but he was very unhappy. His interest in art began when he was young; he encouraged painting as a child, his mother, to express his early paintings, but not to develop the intensity of his later works by methods. Constantijn C. Huysmans was a successful artist in Paris, teaching students in Tilburg. His philosophy is to refuse technical support to capture the impression of things, especially the natural or common objects. Van Gogh's deep dissatisfaction seems to have overshadowed the lesson and achieved little. In March 1868, he came home suddenly. Later he wrote that his youth was "severe and cold, sterile."
In July 1869, Van Gogh's uncle assigned him a place in the Hague as an art dealer, Goupil & CIE. After completing his training in 1873, he was transferred to Goupil London branch, on 17th Street, Southampton, to stay at No. 87, haikeford Road, stoke. This is Van Gogh's happy time. He is successful at work. At the age of 20, he earned more than his father. Theo's wife later said it was the best year of his life. He began to fall in love with his landlady's daughter, Eugenie Alai, but after refusing to admit her feelings, she was secretly engaged to a former tenant. He became more isolated and religious. His father and uncle arranged a transfer to Paris in 1875, where he became an art on issues such as the level of commercialization of the company, and was dismissed a year later.
Van Gogh returned to England in April 1876, working as a substitute teacher in a small boarding school without pay. When the operator moved to alvos with him in Middlesex, Van Gogh. This arrangement did not succeed. He became an assistant to the Minister of the Methodist Church. His parents had moved Eten at the same time; in 1876, he returned home for six months at Christmas, working in a bookstore called Dordrecht. Unfortunately, he doodles in position and time or translates Bible passages into English, French and German. He was immersed in religion, and more and more devout monks. According to his time in bed, Paulus gollitz, Van Gogh ate frugally and avoided meat.
In 1877, his family sent him to his uncle Johannes strick, a respected theologian in Amsterdam,. Van Gogh prepared for the entrance examination for theology at the University of Amsterdam; he failed and left his uncle's house in July 1878. He promised, but failed, a three-month course at Protestant church school near laken Brussels.
In January 1879, Van Gogh preached to Petit wasmes in the coal mining area in Belgium. To support his poor rally, he gave up comfortable accommodation in a bakery for a homeless man and moved to a shack where he slept on straw. His dirty living conditions did not lead him to church authorities, rejecting his "undermining the dignity of the priests.". Then he walked 75 kilometers (47 miles) to Brussels and briefly returned to cuesmes to preach, but put pressure on his parents to go home to Eten. He stayed there until March 1880, worrying and frustrating his parents. There was a particular conflict between Van Gogh and his father, and he believed that he promised to return to cuesmes in the asylum of geel. In August 1880, Van Gogh and the mining company proposed it until October. He became interested in the people and scenes around him, and after recording Theo's suggestions on the drawings, he picked up the art. He went to Brussels later this year, following Theo's advice to learn from Dutch artist William rurov to persuade him, even though he didn't like the formal school art of attending Academie royal art. He registered with Academie in November 1880, where he studied anatomy and standard regular modeling and perspective
Eten, Drent and the Hague
Van Gogh returned to Eten in April 1881 to extend his stay to his parents. He continued to paint, often using his neighbors as the theme. In August 1881, when his recently widowed cousin, Cornelia Vos Stricker "Kay", his mother's sister's daughters willemina and Johannes strick, came to see him. He was very excited and took a walk with her. Kay is seven years older than him, an eight year old son. Van Gogh unexpectedly announced that he liked her and proposed to her. She refused, "no, no, no" ("nooit saw, Nemo").
After Kay returned to Amsterdam Van Gogh to sell paintings in the Hague and meet his cousin to get married, Anton lavender. Lavender is Van Gogh's desire to become a successful artist. Lavender invited him back in a few months and suggested that he spend the time working on charcoal and colored pens, and Van Gogh went back to Etten to follow the advice.
In late November 1881, Van Gogh wrote a letter to Johannes strick describing Theo as an attack and sending it by registered mail to ensure its arrival. He left Amsterdam a few days later. Kay would not see him either, her parents wrote, and his "persistence is nausea." In despair, he was in the flame of a lamp, and his left hand said, "let me see her as long as I can keep my hand in the flame." He didn't recall, but later thought his uncle had blown the flames. Kay's father made it clear that she should not be valued, and that the two would not marry, largely because Van Gogh was unable to support himself.
As a student, Van Gogh introduced him to watercolor painting. Van Gogh had to go home for Christmas next month. Van Gogh refused to go to church, quarreled with his father and left the Hague the same day. Within a month, Van Gogh and lavender, may learn from the feasibility of gypsum. Van Gogh can only afford to hire people from the street model, lavender seems to disagree. Van Gogh suffered a round of gonorrhea in the hospital in June, which took three weeks. Soon after, he oiled for the first time and bought a loan from theo. He liked the medium, which spread freely from canvas and paint, scraping with brushes and working. He wrote that he was surprised at the good results.
In March 1882 Lavender seemed to have cooled Van Gogh and stopped responding to his letters. He learned Van Gogh's new domestic arrangement with a drunkard prostitute, clasina Maria hoornik "Sien" (1850 - 1904), and his daughter. ]Van Gogh met Sien at the end of January 1882, when she had a five-year-old daughter who was pregnant. She had borne the death of two children, but Van Gogh did not know; on July 2, she gave birth to a baby boy, William. When Van Gogh's father discovered the details of their relationship, he put pressure on his son to give up Sien and her two children. Vincent defied him for the first time, and considered moving the family out of town, but Sien and the children left in late 1883.
Biographer mark tralbault speculates that lack of money may push Sien back into prostitution; the family becomes less happy and Van Gogh and his artistic development feel that family life is irreconcilable. Sien gave her mother, her daughter and baby brother William. William remembers visiting about 12 in Rotterdam when one tried to persuade Sien to marry his uncle in order to legitimize his children. He thought Van Gogh was his father, but the time of his birth made it impossible. Sien drowned his own river, the skelter River, in 1904.
In September 1883 Van Gogh moved to Drent in the north of the Netherlands. In December last year, by lonely, he went to accompany his parents and has released Nuenen, North Brabant province.
At Nuenen, Van Gogh focuses on painting and drawing. In August 1884, Margot begemann, the daughter of his neighbor, began to join his painting attempt for ten years. She fell in love, and he returned, though not so enthusiastic. They decided to get married, but the idea was opposed by both families, and Margot overdosed on strychnine. When she was saved, Van Gogh immediately sent her to a nearby hospital. On March 26, 1885, his father died of a heart attack.
Van Gogh painted groups of still life paintings in 1885. During his two years in Nuenen, he completed a large number of sketches and watercolors, as well as nearly 200 oil paintings. His panel is mainly composed of earth's tones, especially dark brown, which show no signs of vivid color, distinguishing his later works.
There was a businessman interested as early as 1885 in Paris and Theo asked Vincent about the preparation of his painting exhibition. Van Gogh completed his first major work in May 1885, "potato eaters, a series of" Research on the role of farmers ", after several years of work. When he complained that Theo had not made enough efforts to sell his paintings in Paris, his brother replied that they were too dark to fit the current bright impressionist style. For the first time in August, his works were on public display, with the help of paint dealers in shop windows in the Hague. One of his young peasant nannies was pregnant in September 1885, and Van Gogh was accused of forcing himself, along with a village priest, to ban parishioner models.
Van Gogh moved to Antwerp in November 1885 and rented a small room for a painting dealer's shop Street image (LANGE beeldekensstraat). He lived in poverty and ate badly, preferring to spend money on theocratic painting materials and models. Bread, coffee and tobacco are his staple foods. In February 1886, he wrote to his brother. He could only remember to eat six hot meals because of the possibility ahead. His teeth are loose and painful. In Antwerp, he used his research on color theory to spend time in museums particle research work Peter Paul Rubens expanded his palette to include rouge, cobalt blue and bright green. Van Gogh bought Japanese woodcut prints in the dock area, and then integrated their style elements