古斯塔夫·多雷Gustave Doré

    古斯塔夫·多雷(法语:Gustave Doré,1832年1月6日—1883年1月23日)出生于法国的斯特拉斯堡,19世纪法国著名版画家、雕刻家和插图作家。自幼喜爱绘画,此后潜心练习。他以幽默画成名。
1853年为拉伯雷的小说作插图大获成功。此后被出版商邀请为多部世界名著作画,成为欧洲闻名的插画家。他为拉伯雷、巴尔扎克《圣经》以及但丁、弥尔顿、塞万提斯等伟大作家所做的插图便使他一举成名。

  • 中文名古斯塔夫·多雷
  • 外文名Gustave Doré
  • 性别
  • 国籍法国
  • 出生地法国斯特拉斯堡
  • 出生日期1832年1月6日
  • 逝世日期1883年1月23日
  • 职业插图画家
中文介绍

传记

多尔出生在斯特拉斯堡1832年1月6日。五岁时,他是一个天才的麻烦制造者,玩恶作剧,成熟的超越他的年龄。七年之后,他开始在水泥雕刻。十五岁的多尔开始他的职业生涯作为一个法国报纸《倒rire漫画家,[1]随后从书本中获得佣金来描绘的场景拉伯雷,巴尔扎克,弥尔顿但丁.

1853年,多尔被要求说明的作品拜伦勋爵.[2]这个委员会是紧随其后的是额外的工作,英国的出版商,包括一个新的插图圣经在1856年他创作了十二folio-size插图的传说流浪的犹太人传播的长期反闪米特的时候,[3]的短诗Pierre-Jean de管理员有来自一本小说吗尤金·苏1845股。[4][5][6]

在1860年代,他说明法国版的塞万提斯堂吉诃德和他描述的骑士和他的侍从桑丘,已经变得如此著名,他们影响了后来的读者,艺术家,和舞台和电影导演的想法的物理“看”两个字。多尔还说明一个超大版的埃德加·爱伦·坡“s”乌鸦”,一个为他赢得了30000年的努力法郎从出版商哈珀和兄弟在1883年。[7]

多尔插图为圣经(1866)是一个巨大的成功,1867年多尔在伦敦的主要展览他的作品。这次展览导致多尔画廊的基础邦德街,伦敦。[8]在1869年,布兰查德·普的儿子道格拉斯·威廉·普,建议他们一起工作来产生一个综合的伦敦。杰的想法获得了伦敦生产的缩影鲁道夫·阿克曼,威廉Pyne,托马斯·罗兰森在1808年。多尔与出版商签署了一份为期五年的合同授予& Co,涉及他在伦敦呆了一年三个月,他收到了巨大的和为项目每年£10000。多尔主要是庆祝他的画在他的天。画作仍举世闻名,但他的木刻版画和雕刻,如他对杰,他真的超越作为一个艺术家的个人愿景。

完成的书,伦敦:朝圣,180版画,于1872年出版。它喜欢商业和流行的成功,但被许多当代评论家不喜欢的工作。其中的一些批评者都关心这样一个事实,多尔似乎专注于伦敦部分地区存在的贫困。多尔艺术杂志“发明而不是复制。”[9]威斯敏斯特评论声称“多尔给了我们最常见的草图,粗俗的外部特征是放下。”[10]这本书是一个金融的成功,然而,从其他英国出版商多尔收到佣金。

多尔的后期作品包括插图的新版本柯勒律治古代水手的霜,弥尔顿《失乐园》,坦尼森国王的田园生活,的作品托马斯·胡德,《神曲》多尔的工作周报也出现了《伦敦新闻画报》上的.

多尔从未结婚,1849年他的父亲去世后,他继续生活与他的母亲,说明书籍,直到他死后在巴黎一个简短的疾病。这个城市的父亲Lachaise公墓包含他的坟墓。[11]法国政府让他一个骑士de la军团肯在1861年。

English Introduction

Biography

Doré was born in Strasbourg on 6 January 1832. By age five, he was a prodigy troublemaker, playing pranks that were mature beyond his years. Seven years later, he began carving in cement. At the age of fifteen Doré began his career working as a caricaturist for the French paper Le Journal pour rire,[1] and subsequently went on to win commissions to depict scenes from books by Rabelais, Balzac, Milton and Dante.

In 1853, Doré was asked to illustrate the works of Lord Byron.[2] This commission was followed by additional work for British publishers, including a new illustrated Bible. In 1856 he produced twelve folio-size illustrations of The Legend of The Wandering Jew, which propagated long standing anti-semitic views of the time,[3] for a short poem whichPierre-Jean de Ranger had derived from a novel of Eugène Sue of 1845.[4][5][6]

In the 1860s he illustrated a French edition of Cervantes's Don Quixote, and his depictions of the knight and his squire, Sancho Panza, have become so famous that they have influenced subsequent readers, artists, and stage and film directors' ideas of the physical "look" of the two characters. Doré also illustrated an oversized edition ofEdgar Allan Poe's "The Raven", an endeavor that earned him 30,000 francs from publisherHarper & Brothers in 1883.[7]

Doré's illustrations for the Bible (1866) were a great success, and in 1867 Doré had a major exhibition of his work in London. This exhibition led to the foundation of the Doré Gallery in Bond Street, London.[8] In 1869, Blanchard Jerrold, the son of Douglas William Jerrold, suggested that they work together to produce a comprehensive portrait of London. Jerrold had obtained the idea from The Microcosm of London produced byRudolph Ackermann, William Pyne, and Thomas Rowlandson in 1808. Doré signed a five-year contract with the publishers Grant & Co that involved his staying in London for three months a year, and he received the vast sum of £10,000 a year for the project. Doré was mainly celebrated for his paintings in his day. His paintings remain world-renowned, but his woodcuts and engravings, like those he did for Jerrold, are where he really excelled as an artist with an individual vision.

The completed book, London: A Pilgrimage, with 180 engravings, was published in 1872. It enjoyed commercial and popular success, but the work was disliked by many contemporary critics. Some of these critics were concerned with the fact that Doré appeared to focus on the poverty that existed in parts of London. Doré was accused by The Art Journal of "inventing rather than copying."[9] The Westminster Review claimed that "Doré gives us sketches in which the commonest, the vulgarest external features are set down."[10] The book was a financial success, however, and Doré received commissions from other British publishers.

Doré's later work included illustrations for new editions of Coleridge's Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Milton's Paradise Lost, Tennyson's Idylls of the King, The Works ofThomas Hood, and The Divine Comedy. Doré's work also appeared in the weekly newspaperThe Illustrated London News.

Doré never married and, following the death of his father in 1849, he continued to live with his mother, illustrating books until his death in Paris following a short illness. The city's Père Lachaise Cemetery contains his grave.[11] The government of France made him a Chevalier de la Legion d'honneur in 1861.

参考资料
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