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马丁·约翰逊.海德Martin Johnson Heade

马丁·约翰逊.海德Martin Johnson Heade(1819年8月11日——1904年9月4日),美国画家。

  • 中文名马丁·约翰逊.海德
  • 外文名Martin Johnson Heade
  • 性别
  • 国籍美国
  • 出生地宾夕法尼亚州
  • 出生日期1819年8月11日
  • 逝世日期1904年9月4日
  • 职业画家
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詹建俊先生是新中国建立后成长起来最早的一代艺术家,他从艺六十个春秋的道路,与共和国发展的坎坷布履紧紧相连。我个人有幸与他相识、学艺、后又作为他的副手一起共事至今,也已超过半个世纪。...
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中文介绍

童年和早期的职业生涯

Heade出生(1819年),并提出在Lumberville,宾夕法尼亚州,沿着一个小村庄特拉华河雄鹿县,宾夕法尼亚直到1850年代中期,他的家人跑了现在所谓的Lumberville商店和邮局,村里唯一的综合商店。名字的拼写家庭是留意。

Heade收到来自民间的艺术家他的第一个艺术培训爱德华·希克斯,谁住在附近的牛顿,也可能来自爱德华的表弟,托马斯·希克斯。Heade由1839年绘画;他已知最早的工作是从当年的一幅画像。他在国外旅行,住在罗马两年。他第一次展出他的作品在1841年,在美术的宾夕法尼亚学院于1843年在费城,再设计的美国国家科学院在纽约。 Heade始于1848年定期展出,再次访问欧洲后,与成为江湖艺人,直到他在纽约定居1859. 

过渡到山水画

大约1857 Heade了兴趣风景油画,部分原因是符合既定的艺术家约翰·弗雷德里克·肯塞特本杰明Champney白山新罕布什尔州Heade搬到纽约市,并在第十届街工作室大楼,其中安置了许多时间著名的哈德逊河学校的艺术家,如采取了工作室艾伯特比斯塔特桑福德吉福德弗雷德里克·埃德温·丘奇他对社会成为和专业与他们相识,并袭击了一个特别亲密的友谊与教堂。景观将最终形成Heade的作品总量的三分之一。

 

热带科目

Heade在热带地区的利益被影响激起了至少部分地教会的不朽的绘画安第斯山脉的心脏(1859)的集合中,现在大都会艺术博物馆Heade游历巴西 1863至1864年,在那里他画了一系列广泛的小作品,最终编号四十,描绘蜂鸟他打算在一系列题为“巴西宝石”计划书,而这本书从来没有发表过,由于财政困难,Heade的对复制品的质量问题。不过Heade返回到热带两次,于1866年痴痴的尼加拉瓜,并在1870年到哥伦比亚巴拿马牙买加他继续热带鸟类和枝叶繁茂的浪漫主义作品描绘了他的职业生涯晚期。

盐沼场景

Heade在主要兴趣景观,并为他也许是最知名的今天的作品,是新英格兰海岸盐沼相反,风景秀丽的高山,峡谷,瀑布和典型的哈得逊河学校显示器,Heade的沼泽景观避免夸大描绘。他们转而专注于风景偏淡水平广阔,并采用重复图案,其中包括小草堆和身材矮小的数字。Heade也集中在光线和气氛在他的沼泽场景的描述。这些以及类似的作品已导致一些历史学家表征Heade作为Luminist画家。1883年Heade搬到圣奥古斯丁,佛罗里达州,把作为他的主要风景被摄体周围的沼泽地亚热带。

后来的生活和静物

Heade结婚,并搬到了 古斯丁,佛罗里达州在1883年他在那里停留,并继续作画,直到他于1904年去世圣奥古斯丁在他的晚年,Heade画南部的花,特别是众多的静物玉兰花开放在天鹅绒。这是自19世纪60年代的Heade制定了静物的兴趣的延续。他早期在这一流派的作品通常描绘的安排在小型或中等大小的布覆盖的表中的华丽的花瓶花的显示。Heade是唯一的19世纪美国艺术家在这两个静物和创建工作的这样一个广泛的体景观Heade圣奥古斯丁去世于1904年。

Heade和哈得逊河学校

艺术史学家来与普遍观点Heade是不同意哈得逊河学校的画家,在一个具有里程碑意义的展览哈德逊河学校享有广泛的货币由Heade的包容景色景观大都会艺术博物馆于1987年。

Heade的领先Heade的学者和作家目录全集西奥多E.斯特宾斯,小,写了一些年1987年的展览结束后,“其他的学者,包括我自己在内,越来越来怀疑Heade是最有效地看作是学校内站立“。

按照Heade目录全集,只有大约40他的画作%的景观。其余的大部分是静物,鸟的画,肖像画,科目无关的哈得逊河学校。的Heade的风景,也许只有25%的治疗传统哈德逊河学校的题材。

Heade曾在比哈得逊河的画家地形精确的意见不感兴趣,而是专注于情绪和光线的影响。斯特宾斯写道,“如果岸边的画作,以及更传统的成分......可能会使人想到Heade作为一个哈德逊河学校的画家中,[沼泽场景]清楚地表明,他不是。”

传统和集合

Heade是不是在他的时间一个著名的艺术家,和许多20世纪几乎被遗忘的第一部分为。围绕19世纪的美国艺术的兴趣重新觉醒二战引发了他新的工作表示赞赏。Heade在特定的工作获得了评论界的关注与展览在他的绘画1943年雷暴在纳拉甘西特湾(1868),成为展会“美国浪漫主义绘画”的部分现代艺术博物馆艺术史学家都来考虑他是他那一代的美国最重要的艺术家之一。他的作品激发了当代艺术家,如大卫Bierk伊恩Hornak

他的作品在大多数主要的美国博物馆,包括美术博物馆马萨诸塞州波士顿市,拥有全国的作品最出色的收藏,其中包括约30画作以及众多的图纸和速写本; 艺术的大都会艺术博物馆在纽约市; 国家艺术画廊华盛顿特区

1955年,罗伯特·麦金太尔,麦克白画廊的艺术史学家和导演,捐出Heade的个人文件缓存到美国艺术档案馆的一部分史密森学会这些文件包括,除其他外,Heade的素描,笔记和信件从他的朋友和老乡艺术家弗雷德里克·埃德温·丘奇2007年,这些论文被数字化,网络作为上访问马丁·约翰逊Heade论文在线

1999年和2000年,Heade是由西奥多·E.斯特宾斯举办大型展览的主题,小从美术在波士顿博物馆的艺术在华盛顿国家美术馆游历,在结束洛杉矶郡艺术博物馆

2004年,Heade是从邮票荣获美国邮政服务的特色他的1890石油画布上画,“在蓝色天鹅绒布巨人木兰。” 由于斯特宾斯在他的著作中指出,Heade的工作也被复制和广泛伪造的。但是,应当指出的是,由于Heade是他一生中并不流行,还有谁模仿他的作品很少同时代的人。因此,20世纪副本为假货显而易见,因为它需要油漆几十年来干变硬。

English Introduction

Childhood and early career

Heade was born (in 1819) and raised in Lumberville, Pennsylvania, a small hamlet along the Delaware River in Bucks County, Pennsylvania.Until the mid-1850s, his family ran what is now called the Lumberville Store and Post Office, the village's sole general store. The family spelling of the name was Heed.

Heade received his first art training from the folk artist Edward Hicks, who lived in nearby Newton, and possibly also from Edward's cousin, Thomas Hicks. Heade was painting by 1839; his earliest known work is a portrait from that year.He traveled abroad and lived in Rome for two years. He first exhibited his work in 1841, at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia, and again in 1843 at theNational Academy of Design in New York. Heade began exhibiting regularly in 1848, after another trip to Europe, and became an itinerant artist until he settled in New York in 1859.

Transition to landscape painting

Around 1857 Heade became interested in landscape painting, partly by meeting the established artists John Frederick Kensett and Benjamin Champney in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Heade moved to New York City and took a studio in the Tenth Street Studio Building, which housed many of the famous Hudson River School artists of the time, such as Albert Bierstadt, Sanford Gifford, and Frederic Edwin Church. He became socially and professionally acquainted with them, and struck up a particularly close friendship with Church. Landscapes would ultimately form a third of Heade's total oeuvre.

 

Tropical subjects

Heade's interest in the tropics was piqued at least partly by the impact of Church's monumental paintingHeart of the Andes (1859), now in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Heade travelled inBrazil from 1863 to 1864, where he painted an extensive series of small works, eventually numbering over forty, depicting hummingbirds. He intended the series for a planned book titled "The Gems of Brazil", but the book was never published due to financial difficulty and Heade's concerns about the quality of the reproductions. Heade nevertheless returned to the tropics twice, in 1866 journeying to Nicaragua, and in 1870 to Colombia, Panama, and Jamaica. He continued to paint romantic works of tropical birds and lush foliage into his late career.

Salt marsh scenes

Heade's primary interest in landscape, and the works for which he is perhaps best known today, was the New England coastal salt marsh. Contrary to typical Hudson River School displays of scenic mountains, valleys, and waterfalls, Heade's marsh landscapes avoided depictions of grandeur. They focused instead on the horizontal expanse of subdued scenery, and employed repeating motifs that included small haystacks and diminutive figures. Heade also concentrated on the depiction of light and atmosphere in his marsh scenes. These and similar works have led some historians to characterize Heade as a Luminist painter. In 1883 Heade moved to Saint Augustine, Florida and took as his primary landscape subject the surrounding subtropical marshland.

Later life and still lifes

Heade married and moved to St. Augustine, Florida in 1883. He remained there and continued to paint until his death in 1904. During his later years in St. Augustine, Heade painted numerous still lifes of southern flowers, especially magnolia blossoms laid on velvet. This was a continuation of an interest in still life that Heade had developed since the 1860s. His earlier works in this genre typically depict a display of flowers arranged in an ornate vase of small or medium size on a cloth-covered table. Heade was the only 19th-century American artist to create such an extensive body of work in both still life andlandscape. Heade died in St. Augustine in 1904.[4]

Heade and the Hudson River School

Art historians have come to disagree with the common view that Heade is a Hudson River School painter, a view given wide currency by Heade's inclusion in a landmark exhibition of Hudson River School landscapes at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1987.

The leading Heade scholar and author of Heade's catalogue raisonné, Theodore E. Stebbins, Jr., wrote some years after the 1987 exhibition, "Other scholars—myself included—have increasingly come to doubt that Heade is most usefully seen as standing within that school."

According to the Heade catalogue raisonné, only around 40 percent of his paintings were landscapes. The remaining majority were still lifes, paintings of birds, and portraits, subjects unrelated to the Hudson River School. Of Heade's landscapes, perhaps only 25 percent treated traditional Hudson River School subject matter.

Heade had less interest in topographically accurate views than the Hudson River painters, and instead focused on mood and the effects of light. Stebbins wrote, "If the paintings of the shore as well as the more conventional compositions...might lead one to think of Heade as a Hudson River School painter, the [marsh scenes] make it clear that he was not."

Legacy and collections

Heade was not a famous artist during his time, and for much of the first part of the 20th century was nearly forgotten. A re-awakening of interest in 19th-century American art around World War II sparked new appreciation of his work. Heade's work in particular received critical attention with the exhibition in 1943 of his painting Thunderstorm Over Narragansett Bay (1868), as part of the show "Romantic Painting in America" at the Museum of Modern Art.Art historians have come to consider him as one of the most important American artists of his generation. His work has inspired contemporary artists such as David Bierk and Ian Hornak.

His works are in most major American museums, including the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts, which owns the nation's most outstanding collection of his works, including about 30 paintings as well as numerous drawings and sketchbooks; the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City; and the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.

In 1955, Robert McIntyre, art historian and director of the Macbeth Gallery, donated a cache of Heade's personal papers to the Archives of American Art, part of the Smithsonian Institution. These papers included, among other things, Heade's sketchbook, notes, and letters from his friend and fellow artist Frederic Edwin Church. In 2007, these papers were digitized and made accessible on the Web as the Martin Johnson Heade Papers Online.

In 1999 and 2000, Heade was the subject of a major exhibition organized by Theodore E. Stebbins, Jr. It traveled from the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston to the National Gallery of Art in Washington, ending at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

In 2004, Heade was honored with a stamp from the U.S. Postal Service featuring his 1890 oil-on-canvas painting, "Giant Magnolias on a Blue Velvet Cloth."[6] As Stebbins notes in his writings, Heade's work has also been copied and forged extensively. It should be noted, however, that since Heade was not popular during his lifetime, there were few contemporaries who emulated his work. 20th century copies are therefore readily apparent as fakes, since it takes oil paint decades to dry out and harden.

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