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达维茨德.海姆Jan Davidsz de Heem

达维茨德.海姆Jan Davidsz de Heem(1606年4月17日——1684年4月26日),荷兰画家。

  • 中文名达维茨德.海姆
  • 外文名Jan Davidsz de
  • 性别
  • 国籍荷兰
  • 出生地乌得勒支
  • 出生日期1606年4月17日
  • 逝世日期1684年4月26日
  • 职业画家
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古根海姆基金会:艺术比财富昂贵    作者:王昱辰

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中文介绍

生活

德谦出生在乌得勒支约翰内斯面包车安特卫普他首先研究了他的父亲大卫德谦长老(1570年至1631年),然后根据下巴尔塔萨·范德助攻他住在莱顿从约1625年至1629年,他在那里研究于1629年根据大卫·贝利(1584-℃。1657)。

他搬到了荷兰南部,加入了圣路加公会在1635或1636安特卫普,成为一个镇民在1637年这个城市的但是他经常缺席,由他不得不为此付出的职责证明。他卓越的才华为他赢得了相当的知名度。他几乎无法满足的需求。德谦被认为是他那个时代最伟大的画家之一。他被高薪和鲜花和水果涡卷装饰包围王子威廉三世的画像被卖了2000荷兰盾,曾经支付了荷兰黄金时代绘画的最高价格之一。[2]他的儿子与他一起工作在他的佣金新的绘画作品研讨会。他润饰他们的工作,并把他的签名的画作。

他仍然在安特卫普,直到1667年,当他搬回乌得勒支,其中的记录跟踪他的存在,从1668年到1671年,他在1671年离开乌得勒支时,法国军队正在接近的城市。它不知道,当他终于回到了安特卫普,但他的死也被记录在公会书籍。

范谦结过两次婚,先用Alette面包车•韦德与他在1643年有三个生存的孩子在她去世,其中一个,科内利斯,将成为一个静物画家。他娶了在1644年与安娜卡特琳娜Ruckers第二次与他有六个孩子,其中被一谁也将成为一个静物画家。[4]

除了他的两个儿子,他有几个学徒:米歇尔Verstylen亚历山大Coosemans托马斯·德KlerckLenaert Rougghe西奥多Aenvanck安德里斯贝内代蒂埃利亚斯面包车登布洛克雅各MARREL亨德里克Schoock亚伯拉罕米尼翁[4]

工作

德谦荷兰静物的最伟大的画家之一,与对象的准确渲染一起结合颜色的辉煌与和谐:花,在他们所有的品种; 欧洲和热带水果; 龙虾和牡蛎; 蝴蝶和飞蛾; 石头和金属; 蜗牛和海贝壳。

他的静物包括水果块,VANITAS静物和花卉作品,但他是最适合他的华丽或丰盛的静物画,即所谓的“已知pronkstillevens ”。他的一些作品是丰富的显示; 人,只有一个花彩花束

他经常会传达一种道德或说明一个座右铭:一条蛇躺在草地下盘绕; 在开花植物的头骨。黄金和白银的杯子或酒杯都暗示地上的财物的虚荣心。救恩是寓言看作是盛开之际一只酒杯,和死亡敬献了花圈十字架。有时,德谦画,单独或与他人,圣母肖像水果或鲜花花环。

他的签名不同:他的首字母(J.德谦楼),或约翰内斯(若望DE谦F.),或他父亲的名字毗邻自己的(JD德谦F。)。偶尔他提供的日期(如A. i65i),尤其是他最好的作品。

集合

一百以上的他的照片在欧洲的画廊看到的,只有18的日期。早期的作品显示了一个瓶子,一个银杯和一个大理石桌子柠檬,日期为1640年,在一个追逐啤酒杯国家博物馆阿姆斯特丹1645年类似的工作,除了水果,花卉和远处的风景,是在朗福德城。敬献了花圈一只酒杯,小麦滑轮,葡萄和花丛中的一束光芒四射,是1648年的杰作丽城维也纳围绕一个真人大小的圣母花圈,1650日,在博物馆柏林,表明德谦能明亮,和谐画上一个大的规模。

老绘画陈列馆慕尼黑是1653一个著名的作品,其中有攀缘植物葫芦,黑莓,橙,桃金娘和桃,并进一步与蝴蝶,飞蛾和甲虫活跃精美打成一片。有一个绽放景观玫瑰树,草莓壶,选择水果,和一个大理石半身像,1655日,在冬宫彼得他的一些作品被保存在比利时皇家美术博物馆布鲁塞尔一1645仍水果和龙虾盛宴的生活是在画廊艾伦纪念美术馆奥伯林,俄亥俄州铅锡高脚杯一个简单的静物可以在理发研究所英国伯明翰可见。

English Introduction

Life

De Heem was born in Utrecht as Johannes van Antwerpen. He studied first under his father David de Heem the Elder (1570–1631), then under Balthasar van der Ast. He lived in Leiden from about 1625 to 1629, where he studied in 1629 under David Bailly (1584- c. 1657).

He moved to the Southern Netherlands and joined the Guild of Saint Luke of Antwerp in 1635 or 1636 and became a burgher of that city in 1637. However he was often absent, as attested by the duties he had to pay for this. His remarkable talent gained him a considerable reputation. He could hardly satisfy the demand. De Heem was considered one of the greatest painters of his time. He was well paid and a portrait of Prince William III surrounded by a cartouche of flowers and fruit was sold for 2000 guilders, one of the highest prices ever paid for a painting during the Dutch Golden Age.[2] His sons worked together with him in his workshop on the commissions for new paintings. He retouched their work and put his signature on the paintings.

He remained in Antwerp until 1667, when he moved back to Utrecht, where records trace his presence from 1668 to 1671. He left Utrecht in 1671 when French troops were approaching the city. It is not known when he finally returned to Antwerp, but his death there is recorded in the guild books.

Van Heem married twice, first with Alette van Weede with whom he had three surviving children on her death in 1643, one of which,Cornelis, would become a still life painter. He married a second time in 1644 with Anna Catherina Ruckers with whom he had six more children, one of whom was Jan who would also become a still life painter.

Apart from his two sons, he had several apprentices: Michiel Verstylen, Alexander Coosemans, Thomas de Klerck, Lenaert Rougghe, Theodor Aenvanck, Andries Benedetti, Elias van den Broeck, Jacob Marrel, Hendrik Schoock and Abraham Mignon.[4]

Work

De Heem was one of the greatest painters of still lifes in the Netherlands, combining a brilliance and harmony of colour along with an accurate rendering of objects: flowers, in all their variety; European and tropical fruits; lobsters and oysters; butterflies and moths; stone and metal; snails and sea shells.

His still lifes included fruit pieces, vanitas still lifes and flower pieces, but he is best known for his ornate or sumptuous still lifes, the so-called 'pronkstillevens'.Some of his works are displays of abundance; others, only a festoon or a nosegay.

Often he would convey a moral or illustrate a motto: a snake lying coiled under grass; a skull on plants in bloom. Gold and silver cups or tankards are suggestive of the vanity of earthly possessions. Salvation is seen allegorically as a chalice amid blossoms, and death as a crucifix in a wreath. Sometimes de Heem painted, alone or with others, Madonnas or portraits in garlands of fruit or flowers.

His signature varied: his initials (J. De Heem f.), or Johannes (IOANNES DE HEEM F.), or his father's name adjoined to his own (J. D. De Heem f.). Occasionally he provided a date (such as A. i65i), especially with his best work.

Collections

Of the one hundred or more of his pictures seen in European galleries, only 18 are dated. An early work shows a chased tankard with a bottle, a silver cup and a lemon on a marble table, dated 1640, in theRijksmuseum in Amsterdam. A similar work of 1645, with the addition of fruit, flowers and a distant landscape, is at Longford Castle. A chalice in a wreath, with a radiant bouquet among wheat sheaves, grapes and flowers, is a masterpiece of 1648 in the Belvedere of Vienna. A wreath around a life-sized Madonna, dated 1650, in the museum of Berlin, shows that de Heem could paint brightly and harmoniously on a large scale.

In the Alte Pinakothek in Munich is a celebrated work of 1653 in which creepers mingle beautifully with gourds, blackberries, orange, myrtle and peach, and further enlivened with butterflies, moths and beetles. A landscape with a blooming rose tree, a jug of strawberries, a selection of fruit, and a marble bust of Pan, dated 1655, is in the Hermitage in St Petersburg. Some of his works are kept at the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium inBrussels.A 1645 still life of a feast of fruit and lobster is in the gallery at the Allen Memorial Art Museum in Oberlin, Ohio. A simple still life of pewter goblets can be seen in the Barber Institute in Birmingham UK.

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