亨利·马蒂斯Henri Matisse

亨利·马蒂斯Henri Matisse(1869年12月31日——1954年11月3日),法国画家、版画家、雕塑家。马蒂斯出生在勒卡托康布雷西,在北部 部门在法国北部,一个繁荣的粮商的长子。[8]他长大博安昂韦尔芒多瓦,皮卡,法国。1887年他到巴黎学习法律,在一家法院管理员勒卡托康布雷西获得了合格后。他第一次开始于1889年画画,他的母亲在以下的攻击一段时间的疗养给他带来了美术用品阑尾炎。他发现了“一种天堂”为他后来描述的那样, ,并决定要成为一名艺术家,令人深感失望他的父亲。

人物关系
  • 中文名亨利·马蒂斯
  • 外文名Henri Matisse
  • 性别
  • 国籍法国
  • 出生地法国
  • 出生日期1869年12月31日
  • 逝世日期1954年11月3日
  • 职业画家、版画家、雕塑家
中文介绍

早期生活和教育

马蒂斯出生在勒卡托康布雷西,在北部 部门在法国北部,一个繁荣的粮商的长子。[8]他长大博安昂韦尔芒多瓦,皮卡,法国。1887年他到巴黎学习法律,在一家法院管理员勒卡托康布雷西获得了合格后。他第一次开始于1889年画画,他的母亲在以下的攻击一段时间的疗养给他带来了美术用品阑尾炎他发现了“一种天堂”为他后来描述的那样,[9] 并决定要成为一名艺术家,令人深感失望他的父亲。[10] [11]

1891年,他回到巴黎在学习艺术Académie朱利安,并成为学生威廉·阿道夫·布格罗古斯塔夫·莫罗最初,他画静物和风景的传统风格,在他取得了合理的水平。马蒂斯被早先大师,如作品的影响让·巴蒂斯·西美翁·夏尔丹尼古拉斯·普桑安托万·华托,以及由现代艺术家,如马奈,和日本艺术夏尔丹是画家马蒂斯最佩服的一个;作为一种艺术的学生,他做的夏尔丹在画一式四份卢浮宫[12]

1896年和1897年,马蒂斯访问的澳大利亚画家约翰·彼得·罗素在岛上贝勒岛离海岸布列塔尼罗素把他介绍给印象派和工作梵高,谁曾拉塞尔的朋友,但在当时是完全未知的。马蒂斯的风格完全改变了。他后来说,“拉塞尔是我的老师,和罗素解释颜色理论给我。” [11] 1896年,马蒂斯展出五幅中的沙龙法国兴业国立美术学院,其中两个是由国家购买。[13 ]

与模型卡罗琳Joblau,他有一个女儿,玛格丽特出生于1894年。1898年,他娶天使爱美丽Noellie Parayre; 两次上调玛格丽特在一起,并有两个儿子,吉恩(生于1899年)和皮埃尔(生于1900年)。玛格丽特和天使爱美丽经常充当模型马蒂斯[14]

1898年,上的意见毕沙罗,他去了伦敦学习的画作特纳,然后去了一趟科西嘉岛[15]当他回到巴黎,1899年2月,他曾旁边阿尔伯特·马尔凯,并会见了安德烈德兰让多姆[16]朱尔斯Flandrin[17]马蒂斯沉浸在他人的工作,走进债务从他钦佩的画家购买工作。他挂在他的家中显示的工作包括石膏半身像罗丹,一幅画由高更,通过绘图梵高塞尚三泳客在图案结构和色彩的塞尚的感觉,马蒂斯发现他的主要灵感来源。[16]

许多马蒂斯的画作1898至1901年彩妆使用的Divisionist技术,他看完后通过保罗·西涅克的作文,“D'德拉克罗瓦盟新impressionisme。” [15]他的画作1902-03,一段材料吃苦对于艺术家来说,是比较忧郁,揭示与形式的当务之急。在做出他的雕塑第一次尝试,以后的副本安托万-路易微巴,在1899年,他投入了大量的精力在粘土工作,完成奴隶于1903年[18]

 

 

 

野兽派

野兽派的风格开始1900年左右,并不断超越1910年的运动本身只持续了几年,1904至08年,并有三个展览。[19] [20]运动的领导人马蒂斯安德烈德兰[19 ]马蒂斯的首次个展在安布鲁瓦兹沃拉德的画廊于1904年,[16]但没有成功。他对明亮色彩表现喜爱更加明显后,他花费在1904画的夏季 圣特罗佩新印象派西涅克亨利-爱德蒙[15]在这一年,他画中最重要的作品在新印象派风格,豪华,CALME等Volupté[15] 1905年,他向南再次前往一起工作安德烈德兰科利尤尔这一时期他画的特点是扁平的形状和控制线,采用点画比以前不太严格的方法。

马蒂斯和一群现在被称为“艺术家野兽派在一个房间在展出在一起” 秋季沙龙在1905年的绘画表达了野生的,往往不搭调的色彩情感,而无需为主体的自然色彩方面。马蒂斯显示打开窗口女人的帽子在沙龙。评论家路易·沃克塞尔所描述的工作改为“多纳泰罗 PARMI LES野兽派!” (野兽之间太罗),指的是文艺复兴时期的这一共同的房间,他们的雕塑型。[21]他的评论是印在1905年10月17日在吉尔布拉斯,每日报纸,走进广为使用。[19] [21]本次展览囊括苛刻criticism-“油漆锅已经在公众面前被扔”,称评论家卡米尔Mauclair也-但一些有利的关注。[21]当被挑出来进行谴责的特殊画,马蒂斯戴帽子的女人,被收购格特鲁德狮子座斯坦,四面楚歌的艺术家的士气大为改善。[21]

马蒂斯被认为是野兽派的领导者,拥有安德烈德兰一起; 两个人友好的对手,每个都有自己的追随者。其他成员乔治·布拉克拉乌尔杜菲莫里斯·Vlaminck象征主义画家古斯塔夫·莫罗(1826年至1898年)是该运动的鼓舞人心的老师。截至教授高等美术学院在巴黎,他把他的学生去思考形式的线外,并按照他们的梦想。

1907年纪尧姆阿波利奈尔,发表在一篇文章中评论有关马蒂斯香格里拉长枪党中写道,“我们不是在这里一个奢侈的或极端主义事业的存在:马蒂斯的艺术是合乎情理” [22]的时间,但马蒂斯的作品也遇到了激烈的批评,这是很难为他提供他的家庭。[11]他的画奴国际学院(1907年),在被烧毁的肖像军械库展于1913年在芝加哥[23]

1906年后,野兽派运动的衰落并没有影响马蒂斯的职业生涯; 许多他最好的作品被1906年和1917年,当他的艺术才华在伟大的聚会的活动部分之间建立蒙帕纳斯,尽管他不太适应,与他的保守外观和严格的资产阶级的工作习惯。他不断地吸收新的影响。他前往阿尔及利亚于1906年研究非洲艺术和原始主义观看大型展览后伊斯兰艺术于1910年在慕尼黑,他花了两个月在西班牙的摩尔人学习艺术。他访问了摩洛哥于1912年,1913年,再而三,而在绘画吉尔他做了一些改动他的工作,包括他采用黑色作为颜色。[24] [25] [26]马蒂斯的艺术效果是在一个新的气魄在使用激烈,未调制的颜色,L'Atelier酒店高棉(1911年)。[15]

马蒂斯曾与俄罗斯的艺术收藏家长协谢尔盖·休金他创造了他的主要作品之一拉探戈专门为休金为两幅画佣金的一部分,其他的画是音乐, 1910年 早期版本的La探戈(1909年)是集合中的现代艺术博物馆在纽约市。

English Introduction

Early life and education

Matisse was born in Le Cateau-Cambrésis, in the Nord department in northern France, the oldest son of a prosperous grain merchant.[8] He grew up inBohain-en-Vermandois, Picardie, France. In 1887 he went to Paris to study law, working as a court administrator in Le Cateau-Cambrésis after gaining his qualification. He first started to paint in 1889, after his mother brought him art supplies during a period of convalescence following an attack of appendicitis. He discovered "a kind of paradise" as he later described it,[9] and decided to become an artist, deeply disappointing his father.[10][11]

In 1891 he returned to Paris to study art at the Académie Julian and became a student of William-Adolphe Bouguereau and Gustave Moreau. Initially he painted still lifes and landscapes in a traditional style, at which he achieved reasonable proficiency. Matisse was influenced by the works of earlier masters such as Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, Nicolas Poussin, and Antoine Watteau, as well as by modern artists, such as Édouard Manet, and by Japanese art. Chardin was one of the painters Matisse most admired; as an art student he made copies of four of Chardin's paintings in the Louvre.[12]

In 1896 and 1897, Matisse visited the Australian painter John Peter Russell on the island Belle Île off the coast of Brittany. Russell introduced him to Impressionism and to the work of van Gogh, who had been a friend of Russell but was completely unknown at the time. Matisse's style changed completely. He later said "Russell was my teacher, and Russell explained colour theory to me."[11] In 1896 Matisse exhibited five paintings in the salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, two of which were purchased by the state.[13]

With the model Caroline Joblau, he had a daughter, Marguerite, born in 1894. In 1898 he married Amélie Noellie Parayre; the two raised Marguerite together and had two sons, Jean (born 1899) and Pierre (born 1900). Marguerite and Amélie often served as models for Matisse.[14]

In 1898, on the advice of Camille Pissarro, he went to London to study the paintings of J. M. W. Turner and then went on a trip toCorsica.[15] Upon his return to Paris in February 1899, he worked beside Albert Marquet and met André Derain, Jean Puy,[16] and Jules Flandrin.[17] Matisse immersed himself in the work of others and went into debt from buying work from painters he admired. The work he hung and displayed in his home included a plaster bust by Rodin, a painting by Gauguin, a drawing by van Gogh, and Cézanne's Three Bathers. In Cézanne's sense of pictorial structure and colour, Matisse found his main inspiration.[16]

Many of Matisse's paintings from 1898 to 1901 make use of a Divisionist technique he adopted after reading Paul Signac's essay, "D'Eugène Delacroix au Néo-impressionisme".[15] His paintings of 1902–03, a period of material hardship for the artist, are comparatively somber and reveal a preoccupation with form. Having made his first attempt at sculpture, a copy after Antoine-Louis Barye, in 1899, he devoted much of his energy to working in clay, completing The Slave in 1903.[18]

Fauvism

 

Fauvism as a style began around 1900 and continued beyond 1910. The movement as such lasted only a few years, 1904–1908, and had three exhibitions.[19][20] The leaders of the movement were Matisse and André Derain.[19]Matisse's first solo exhibition was at Ambroise Vollard's gallery in 1904,[16] without much success. His fondness for bright and expressive colour became more pronounced after he spent the summer of 1904 painting in St. Tropezwith the neo-Impressionists Signac and Henri-Edmond Cross.[15] In that year he painted the most important of his works in the neo-Impressionist style, Luxe, Calme et Volupté.[15] In 1905 he travelled southwards again to work with André Derain at Collioure. His paintings of this period are characterised by flat shapes and controlled lines, using pointillism in a less rigorous way than before.

Matisse and a group of artists now known as "Fauves" exhibited together in a room at the Salon d'Automne in 1905. The paintings expressed emotion with wild, often dissonant colours, without regard for the subject's natural colours. Matisse showed Open Window and Woman with the Hat at the Salon. Critic Louis Vauxcellesdescribed the work with the phrase "Donatello parmi les fauves!" (Donatello among the wild beasts), referring to a Renaissance-type sculpture that shared the room with them.[21] His comment was printed on 17 October 1905 inGil Blas, a daily newspaper, and passed into popular usage.[19][21] The exhibition garnered harsh criticism—"A pot of paint has been flung in the face of the public", said the critic Camille Mauclair—but also some favourable attention.[21] When the painting that was singled out for special condemnation, Matisse's Woman with a Hat, was bought by Gertrudeand Leo Stein, the embattled artist's morale improved considerably.[21]

Matisse was recognised as a leader of the Fauves, along with André Derain; the two were friendly rivals, each with his own followers. Other members were Georges Braque, Raoul Dufy, and Maurice de Vlaminck. TheSymbolist painter Gustave Moreau (1826–1898) was the movement's inspirational teacher. As a professor at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, he pushed his students to think outside of the lines of formality and to follow their visions.

In 1907 Guillaume Apollinaire, commenting about Matisse in an article published in La Falange, wrote, "We are not here in the presence of an extravagant or an extremist undertaking: Matisse's art is eminently reasonable."[22] But Matisse's work of the time also encountered vehement criticism, and it was difficult for him to provide for his family.[11] His painting Nu bleu (1907) was burned in effigy at the Armory Show in Chicago in 1913.[23]

The decline of the Fauvist movement after 1906 did not affect the career of Matisse; many of his finest works were created between 1906 and 1917, when he was an active part of the great gathering of artistic talent in Montparnasse, even though he did not quite fit in, with his conservative appearance and strict bourgeois work habits. He continued to absorb new influences. He travelled to Algeria in 1906 studying African art and Primitivism. After viewing a large exhibition of Islamic art in Munich in 1910, he spent two months in Spain studying Moorish art. He visited Morocco in 1912 and again in 1913 and while painting inTangiers he made several changes to his work, including his use of black as a colour.[24][25][26] The effect on Matisse's art was a new boldness in the use of intense, unmodulated colour, as in L'Atelier Rouge (1911).[15]

Matisse had a long association with the Russian art collector Sergei Shchukin. He created one of his major works La Danse specially for Shchukin as part of a two painting commission, the other painting being Music, 1910. An earlier version of La Danse (1909) is in the collection of The Museum of Modern Art in New York City.

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