He has long been a professor at the University of Stockholm, Sweden. He has visited China many times since 1900. In 1922, he visited Osvald SSiren of Tianlong Mountain Grottoes in person. In 1925, he published Fisheng International's special book "Chinese Sculpture in the Fifth and Fourteenth Centuries". His original purpose was to try to construct Westerners. Scholars can understand and appreciate Chinese sculpture, especially the indicative concept of ancient Chinese Buddhist statues. The book is divided into four volumes, the first volume is a text discussion, including 152 pages of narrative and 168 pages of layout description; Volume II to Volume IV contains 623 plates, including physical pictures of Collotypes (formerly known as glass version).
More than 900 copies. According to the development of the main style of Buddhist statues, supplemented by sculpture physical plate, Hi Longren divided Chinese sculpture into four periods: (1) the ancient and humble period; the Northern and Southern Dynasties, the Northern Wei Dynasty, the Eastern Wei Dynasty and the Western Wei Dynasty. (2) Transitional period; Northern Qi Dynasty, Northern Zhou Dynasty and the Lazy Age. (3) Mature period; Tang Dynasty. (4) Decline and revival period, late Tang, Song and Liao Dynasty.
Generally, Westerners write books about Chinese sculpture, no matter how hard they study it, they are still Western-style views at best. It is difficult to go deep into the core issues of Chinese Buddhist statues. However, Xilongren, who has a keen eye, shows different interpretations of scholarly stereotypes. He pointed out that there was no Western Renaissance in ancient China.
The existence of so-called "sculpture" and "sculpture" is common (see page 15 of the original book). According to historical records, such as Yang Xuanzhi's "Luoyang Galan Ji", I learned that there were workshops supported by Buddhist groups in Luoyang, the capital city of the Northern Wei Dynasty, and Li Linfu's "Tang Dynasty Canon", which belonged to Shaofu Supervisor Zuo Shangjun, was also in charge of "painting and carving". Up to the Song Dynasty, Shaofu Supervisor attached to Wensi Yuan, there were two works of making sculptures and decorating. We can confirm that the Chinese artistic Pulsators in charge of the past dynasties have always been manipulated in the hands of literati, and sculpture works have always been classified as craftsmen industry, failing to enter the Olympics, not listed in the evaluation.
In the book "Chinese Sculpture from the Fifth to the Fourteenth Century", Xilongren, with his remarkable insight, specializes in comparing the different artistic creations of Western and Chinese craftsmen. His "Sculptural problems" actually refer to the different ways of expression of the essence of sculpture. He believes that the western world attaches great importance to the concept of plasticity, focusing on the perfect nakedness of sculpture, the operation of muscles, the organic sense of body shape; whether it is religious or secular sculpture, the Western sculpture with human as its theme, converting the soul to the idea of beauty, and its characteristics. It is the expression of anthropomorphic theory. During the Renaissance, many religious sculptures by Italian sculptor Michelangelo (1475-1564) revealed shock, nerve tension, special soul or internal struggle rather than the tranquility and expression of Chinese Buddhist statues.
The most incisive and attracting international attention is that Hi Long Ren juxtaposes Michelangelo's statue "Moses" and Longmen Fengxian Temple Buddha to compare the different ways of expression of Eastern and Western sculptures. In Hirohito's eyes, Michelangelo's Moses presents: "a highly variable sitting position, tense muscles, dramatic drapery emphasizing motion and tension." On the other hand, Hi Longren analyzed the Luxena Buddha in Fengxian Temple with different purposes: "The complete state of rest and rest, meticulously portrayed positively, legs crossed and sat cross-legged, arms hung down close to the body, the posture can be said to be full of Closed, there is no external centrifugal force trend. A series of long arcs from the broad chest droop constitute the clothing pattern of mantle, with a quiet sense of rhythm, which suitably highlights the overall macroscopic rest harmony. It is worth noting that although the shape is completely covered by gowns, the powerful shape and limb characteristics of the Buddha can be fully recognized. Strictly speaking, the function of the body-covering gown adds to the inner mentality or inner meaning of the characters. The broad face with traditional long ears and spiral hair bun spreads peace and kindness. It is almost individualized, does not strive for it, does not satisfy the inner desire, but can express it directly from the face, which contains a kind of pathos integrated into harmony. Anyone who comes into contact with this great Buddha will intuit his religious meaning even if he does not know his theme. The inner meaning of the theme comes from artistic thinking. Is he a prophet? Or God? Neither of them matters. He is a perfect work of art, transmitted to the viewer through the unification of spiritual ideas. Such works make us realize that since the Renaissance, all the personality portrayals in the long-suffering sculptures are merely the surface ripples of the fountain of life and the source of living water. (Luxury translation from Xilong Ren's original book, page 20.)
In the first volume, Xilongren compares the "Moses" of Michelangelo with the "Luxena Buddha" of Fengxian Temple in the Tang Dynasty in Longmen. He observes the different artistic expressions of religious statues in the East and the West. He observes the Chinese sculpture which does not emphasize the idea of figuration deliberately and does not make perfect figuration artificially. Craftsmen pursue generality rather than individuality, and Buddhist statues tend to be antianthropomorphic. According to this, Hi Long Ren takes two groups of Li Shi statues at the gate of Cave 8 of Tianlong Mountain as representative examples to guide us to find a foothold and a new starting point for the evaluation of Buddhist statues, the mainstream of Chinese sculpture.
For the two groups of dvarapalas at the gate of the Eight Grottoes in Tianlong Mountain, strange! Ming Ming is full of dynamic shapes, but Xilongren believes that its artistic expression is not entirely realistic, but contains symbolic language of statue. The eighth cave excavated in the Sui Dynasty, one of the largest caves in Tianlong Mountain, was less influenced by the Indian style than the 16th cave in the Northern Qi Dynasty earlier in the years. Hi Long Ren especially cited two groups of powerful men in the eighth cave in Tianlong Mountain, which possessed strong characteristics of the times and was considered superior to the resting Buddha or Bodhisattva statues in the cave. Xilongren will frown and look at the Eight Caves of Lishi, like the exaggerated movements of Herculeanforms and muscular movements in the Western world, to interpret their body language symbolic. In addition, craftsmen also skillfully use the flutter of clothes folds to show the dynamic feeling of Lishi's body. In other words, the focus of craftsmen is not on the vehemence or impetuosity of Rex, but on the use of exterior exaggerated actions to embody a higher level of internal artistic symbolism. Xilong Ren clearly said that the great contribution of Chinese sculptors and even the whole Chinese civilization is the development of artistic stic symbols, which are proud of the world (see page 23 of the original book).
The best way to appreciate and analyze the artistic achievements of Chinese sculpture is to master the symbolism of the language of the statue in an all-round way. This is why Buddhist statues have become the mainstream of Chinese sculpture. We can explore the artistic aesthetics of ancient Chinese sculpture according to the iconographic rules derived from the craftsmen of past dynasties. Generally speaking, the basic characteristics of Chinese Buddhist statues are both image beauty and soul beauty. Through symbolic techniques, craftsmen integrate limited shapes into infinite spiritual realm and replace postures or mudras, which can replace the dynamic body language of Western religious sculptures, such as symbolic positionofhands. See Hi Long Ren Yuan Book 132 for Zen Seal and Shi Wudao Seal, which depict the ideal realm of tranquility, harmony, solemnity, compassion and transcendence.
Chinese style clothing pattern
Xilongren is the first artistic historian in the western world to discuss the characteristics of Chinese sculpture style and clothing pattern with concrete examples. In his special book "Chinese Sculpture from the Fifth to the Fourteenth Century", he has repeatedly talked about the Buddhist statues'clothing pattern and clothing pattern. Why does his clothing style and clothing pattern attach such unusual importance?
Clothes and clothing patterns are the indispensable principal axis coordinates for exploring the changing trajectory of Buddhist statues in the past dynasties, including the comparison of different sculpture forms between the East and the West, when Michelangelo's masterpiece "Moses" and Luxena Buddha of the Tang Dynasty, whose head is 4 meters and ear is 1.9 meters. In addition to the head and limbs, the shape and structure of all parts of the body of Chinese Buddha statues are almost covered by the large outline of the body-covering gown. As far as the techniques of Chinese sculpture art are concerned, Hi Longren believes that the clothing style and clothing pattern are important for Buddhist statues. It is no less than the brushstrokes of Chinese landscape painting and calligraphy.
The costume style of early Buddhist statues in China was transformed from the tunic gown which was popular from the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period to the Qin and Han Dynasties. The characteristics of this kind of broad-clothes bogown style are: (1) combined with upper and lower clothes, according to the "deep clothes" style mentioned in the Book of Rites (Kong Yingda notes: "Clothes are connected, the body is deep and rapid, so it is called"deep clothes". (2) Quyi (the part where the sleeve ends contract). (3) Make a skirt (the skirt circles down to the axilla and circles around the back); in the painted wooden barrel of Chu Tomb in the Warring States Period and in the Han Tomb No. 1 in Mawangdui, Changsha, we can find examples of the clothes unearthed (see Shen Congwen's Study of Ancient Chinese Clothing).
After the introduction of Buddhism into China, Xilongren noticed that the earliest Royal Grottoes excavated in the Central Plains area in the Northern Wei Dynasty and the early statues of Yungang Grottoes, a national Grottoes constructed by manpower throughout the country, were mostly in the form of "one-shoulder" style (fig. 1 on page 42 of the original book of Xilongren). They were broad and long clothes with U-shaped fine and dense clothes, which were closely attached to the body as they are today. Dresses, wide sleeves; neckline with a shawl, similar to the present scarf, from the right shoulder through the chest, draped to the left shoulder and then back to the shoulder. Or (2): Right Shoulder Style, such as the Five Grottoes of Tan Tan, which is now numbered Cave 20, sits awkwardly in the open air Buddha (Fig. 4) 13.7 meters high. The clothing Style inclines from the Buddha's left shoulder to the right underarm. The right breast and right arm are exposed outside. Only the edge of the jacket is exposed on the right shoulder. The clothing folds are parallel raised lines and are decorated with shade-engraved clothing lines. Fine, jagged folds at the end of the garment. These two shoulder-opening and right-shoulder clothing styles are obviously influenced by Indian statues.
Until the late statues of Yungang Grottoes, Chinese style clothes appeared one after another. The second stage of Yungang Grottoes excavated by Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei Dynasty before he moved to Luoyang, such as the main Buddha in Caves 5 and 6, were all dressed in the clothes of the scholar-bureaucrats of the Southern Dynasty. The clothes were worn by monks only, with double collars hanging down and double ribbons for tie. Bodhisattvas also changed to wear vine crowns, silk clothes on their heads, and sheep bowel skirts. The change of clothing style of "corona style" in the early and late period of Yungang corresponds to a series of reforms of the Chinese style of clothing of Emperor Xiaowen, such as the "first corona style" in Taihe Decade.
Not only did the clothing pattern of Buddhist statues change from the shoulder coat in the early period of Yungang Grottoes to the Chinese style in the late period of Yungang, but also the basic rudiments of the clothing pattern of Chinese Buddhist statues and sitting statues were completed in the Northern Wei Dynasty. In the early years of Taihe in the early Northern Wei Dynasty, craftsmen had succeeded in creating elegant garment lines composed of concise, strong and parallel lines, with a dynamic sense of elegant garment folds, strong and powerful outline, drooping like bird wings stretching, like Buddha falling from the world. On the other hand, in the later period of the Northern Wei Dynasty, in the caves of Yungang and the statues of Houlongmen Grottoes in Luoyang, where the capital was moved, the clothing patterns of the sitting statues, the knees of the robes, the drooping dresses, the winding and overturning of the dresses, the overlapping shelters, the long and short clothes folds, the folding and folding of the clothes, the complexity and simplicity are different and changeable, such as the lines of running clouds and running water, create a vivid sense of rhythm. Compared with the clothes that stand like wings, each has its own characteristics and interesting contrast.
We can summarize the common points of ancient Buddhist sculpture art in China. For the artists who did not deliberately delineate the body movements of statues, or the realistic expression of organic forms, while pursuing higher artistic symbols of statue language, we try to outline the costume patterns covering the general outline of the body structure of Buddha statues. The expression of garment pattern in bracket geometry. It is highly appreciated by Xilongren. In the period of Northern Wei Dynasty, the clothes of the statues developed in Yungang Grottoes and the clothes of the sitting statues which came out a little later can be compared with the traditional ways of describing mountains and stones, as well as the ways of artistic treatment and beautification. Compared with the methods of grazing in Chinese landscape painting, the ancient methods of painting derive from the factions of mountain and stone painting. Ancient unknown craftsmen engaged in Buddhist sculpture did not record the main points of discussing the clothes pattern, and determined several basic forms of clothes pattern of sitting and standing statues. They called it a certain pattern: Hi Long Ren, as a Western personage, stated with specific examples that 1,500 years ago, the clothes pattern of standing statues was completed in the early period of the Northern Wei Dynasty, and then in the later period of the Northern Wei Dynasty. Like the formal analysis of the techniques of the clothes markers, the development of Chinese sculpture art has contributed a lot.
Mainstream Grottoes and Statue Center Representing the Style of the Times
Since the fifth century, Buddhism has leaped into the mainstream of Chinese culture and art. In the context of the origin and development of Chinese Buddhist sculpture, Xilongren of next week's Kungfu outlines several mainstream grottoes and statue centers in the interlaced space and time. From the Northern Wei Dynasty to the Tang and Song Dynasties, Buddhist statues have been nationalized and secularized. In the book "Chinese Sculpture from the Fifth to the Fourteenth Century", each dynasty has its own history. The style, outline and characteristics of Buddhist statue art are obvious, and its forward-looking and indicators are not comparable to other Chinese Buddhist sculpture books of the same nature.
Saburo Matsubara, the authority of Chinese Buddhist statues in Japan, has spent more than 30 years writing a history of Buddhist sculpture that can collect the characteristics of statues of different times. Based on his doctoral dissertation of Northeast University, The History of Chinese Buddhist Sculpture (1966 edition), he avoided the pluralistic transformation and the similarities and differences of several mainstream grottoes, focusing on the study of stone Buddhas and bronze Buddhas other than grotto statues. In 1966, Sanlang Matsuhara published four volumes of "Revising the History of Chinese Buddhist Sculpture" again, with different praises. Although the edition of this book is more complete than that of the previous book, it lacks the main grottoes of Yungang, Longmen, Gongxian, Tianlongshan and Xiangtang, which are collected by Hi Long Ren in a forward-looking way. Some questioned whether it could be regarded as a comprehensive representative work of Chinese Buddhist sculpture.
International artists praise Hi Longren for his strong artistic style as an indicator of the times. For example, Dingzhou, the statue center rich in white marble in Hebei, represents the statue style of the Northern Qi Dynasty in the transitional period and the statue style of the Northern Wei Dynasty before that. In contrast, there are two distinct statue styles. The new statue style in the Northern Qi Dynasty is characterized by: (1) Cylindrical shape of limbs, hands, feet and body parts; (2) large head, broad chest and shoulders; (3) close to the body, shallow lines of clothing lines; (4) the overall statue tends to be large and small, convergent near the feet, resulting in a sense of rhythm of decline and contraction (Fig. 8, Northern Qi Bai). Marble statue of Buddha, Grenville L. Winthrop Collection, New York, 68 pages of Hieron Ren's original book, plate 255. Compared with the old style of statues in the Northern Wei Dynasty, they are characterized by: (1) flattened angular shape, (2) small head, narrow shoulders, (3) wide gown with bow-belt, drooping jacket and bird-like wings, (4) the overall statue tends to be small and swollen up and down, and the proximal feet swell outward, producing a sense of rhythm of upward fluttering (Fig. 9). In the five years of Zhengguang in the Northern Wei Dynasty and 524 AD, Niu Yao made Maitreya Buddha statues, which are collected in the Metropolitan Museum of the United States. Many people took the above-mentioned viewpoint of Xilongren to analyze the new statue style of Dingzhou, Hebei Statue Center, as an artistic feature of Chinese Buddha sculpture in the Northern Qi Dynasty, which was unexpected by Xilongren.
Xilongren, a pioneer in introducing Chinese Buddhist statue sculpture to the West, what should we give him a proper evaluation position? This book, which he published 70 years ago, has a very high academic status: Chinese Sculpture in the Fifth to Fourteenth Centuries. There are occasional mistakes in it. For example, he regards the sitting statue of the Golden Buddha, which is engraved on the inscription of the Fourteenth Year of Liu Song, Yuan and Jia (437 AD), as the earliest bronze Buddha with the inscription of the Yuan Dynasty in China (see page 33 of the original book, which should be revised). Four years after Zhao Jianwu's collection in the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 338 years ago, he inscribed the Buddha as the earliest inscription of the Bronze Buddha in the epoch of China, or some immature views on grotto statues. Today, we still think that there are many defects. His magnificent carving, perhaps not the perfect ending, opens up Chinese Buddhist statues. New research fields. It is said that Heinrich Wolfflin, a far-reaching American art historian, was a man of great importance who devoted his whole life to Chinese sculpture and painting. His persistence and research won endless applause from all over the world.
(This article is selected from No. 32 of Ziyu Jinsha Magazine, Hu Yongyan/Wen)