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喜龙仁

奥斯伍尔德·喜龙仁(Osvald Siren),瑞典美术史家、哲学博士。1879年生于芬兰。赫尔辛基大学毕业。1966年6月26日逝世,享年八十七岁。 

  • 中文名奥斯伍尔德·喜龙仁
  • 外文名Osvald Siren
  • 性别
  • 国籍欧洲
  • 出生地瑞典
  • 出生日期1879
  • 逝世日期1966
  • 职业瑞典美术史家、哲学博士
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喜龙仁 百科全书式的中国艺术史家

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喜龙仁 喜龙仁(中)与日本艺术史家岛田修二郎(右一)在日本黑川...
个人简介

 长期担任瑞典斯德哥尔摩(stOCkhOlm)大学教授,一九00年后多次来华,一九二二年亲访天龙山石窟的喜龙仁(OsvaldSSiren1789--1966年),一九二五年出版斐声国际的专书《五至十四世纪的中国雕刻》,原先他的目的在尝试架构出西方人士所能理解欣赏的中国雕刻,尤其是中国古代佛教造像的指标性概念。全书共分四卷,第一卷是文字论述,包括152页的叙述和168页的图版说明;第二卷至第四卷共收录623幅图版,计有珂罗版(Collotypes旧称玻璃版)的实物图片 

  900多张。依佛教造像主要风格特征的年代发展,辅以雕塑实物图版,喜龙仁将中国雕刻厘分四期论述:(1)古拙时期;南北朝、北魏、东魏、西魏。(2)过渡时期;北齐、北周、惰代。(3)成熟时期;唐代。(4)衰微以及复兴时期,晚唐、宋、辽。 

  一般西方人著手撰写有关中国雕刻的专书,无论怎样钻研窥究,充其量毕竟仍是西方式的观点,难以深入中国佛教造像的核心问题,慧眼细心的喜龙仁则不然,他显示迥异书生窠臼的诠释。他指出中国古代并无西方世界文艺复兴以来 

  习见的所谓“雕刻”、“雕刻”的存在(参见原书第十五页)。根据史书记载,例如杨炫之的《洛阳伽蓝记》,获悉北魏的都城洛阳早期已有佛教团体支持的作坊,另李林甫的《唐大典》,隶属少府监的左尚署兼掌“画素刻镂”之事,迄宋代的少府监附设文思院,存有捏塑、装銮两作,我们可印证历代主掌中国文艺脉动者,始终操纵在文人手中,雕塑作品一向被划归匠人行业,未能登堂入奥,不列品评。 

  见识非凡的喜龙仁,开宗明义,在《五至十四世纪的中国雕刻》书中,专就雕刻作品比较西方和中国匠师不同的艺术创造。他所提出的“雕刻的问题”(Sculpturalproblems)实际上指的是不同雕刻本质的表现方式。他认为西方世界重视造形理念(plasticideas),欣赏的焦点集中在雕刻作品完美的赤裸,肌肉的运作,体形的有机感;无论其是否为宗教式雕刻品,抑或是世俗式雕刻品,以人为主题的西方雕刻,将心灵皈依转成美的理念化,其特色乃是神人同形论的(anthropomorphic)表现。文艺复兴时期,义大利的雕刻大师米开朗基罗(Michelangelo1475--1564年)的许多宗教主题雕刻作品,流露出震撼筋骨、绷紧神经、特殊的心灵或内在挣扎,而不是中国佛教造像惯有的宁静祥和表现方式。 

  最为精辟并且引起国际人士瞩目的是:喜龙仁把米开朗基罗的雕像名品“摩西”(Moses)和龙门奉先寺大佛两者并列(jUXtaposition),比较东西方雕刻的不同表现方式。在喜龙仁的眼中,米开朗基罗的摩西呈现:“高度变化的坐姿,绷紧的肌肉,强调动感和张力的戏剧式衣褶(dramaticdrapery)。另一方面,喜龙仁分析旨趣互异的奉先寺卢舍那大佛:“全然的憩止状态,一丝不苟地正面刻划,双腿交叉盘坐,两臂贴身下垂,姿式可谓十足的内敛观照式(Closed),没有外在离心力的动向。自宽阔胸部下垂的一系列长条弧线构成袍服(mantle)的衣纹,宁静的节奏感,适足凸显整体宏观的憩止和谐。值得注意的是外形虽被袍服全部笼盖,依稀可充分辨认出大佛强而有力的造形和四肢的特征,严格说来,蔽体袍服的功能,另增添人物的内在心态或内在意义。具有传统式长耳,螺形发髻的方阔脸型,扩散出和平与慈祥,几乎无个性化,未著力强求,不呈内在欲求,却可从面容表现,直陈其蕴含某种融入和谐的悲悯之情(pathos)。任何接触到本尊大佛的人,就算懵然不知其主题,也会直觉出衪的宗教意义,主题的内在意义系随著艺术思考产生,衪是先知?或是神祇?均无关紧要,衪是一件完美的艺术品,藉由精神意念的统摄传递给观赏者。像这样的作品让我们认识到文艺复兴以来,长久受到折磨雕刻品中的所有个性刻划,其实只不过是形成生命之泉,活水源头的表面涟漪而已”。(侈译自喜龙仁原书第二十页。) 

  在第一卷的总论中,喜龙仁以米开朗基罗的“摩西”和龙门唐代奉先寺卢舍那大佛比较血肉贲张以及冥思静观,一动一静,东西方宗教造像的不同艺术表现方式;他考察到未刻意强调造形理念,不以人为完美造形的中国雕刻,匠师们所追求的是通性而非个性,佛教造像倾向于非神人同形论的(antianthropomorphic)。按著,喜龙仁再以他情有独钟,特殊好感,前面叙述的天龙山第八窟门口的两组力士立像作为代表性实例,引导我们更进一步对中国雕刻主流--佛教造像的品评找出立足点和新的鉴赏切入点。 

  对于天龙山八窟门口的两组力士(dvarapalas)立像,怪哉!明明是剑拔弩张,充满动态的造形,喜龙仁却认为其艺术表现并非全然是写实式,而是蕴含象征式的造像语言。天龙山大窟之一,隋代开凿的第八窟,较诸年代稍早北齐时代的第十六窟,受印度风格的影响小,并且喜龙仁所特别举出天龙山第八窟的两组力士,比窟洞内憩止状态的佛或菩萨造像而言,具备强烈的时代特色,允称上品。喜龙仁将蹙眉怒目、声势逼人的八窟力士,如同西方世界大力士造形(Herculeanforms)和肌肉动作(muscularmvement)的夸张性动作,诠释其肢体语言系象征式(symbolic);另外,匠师们也巧妙地运用衣褶的飘扬,显示出力士身体的动感。换言之,匠师们所要表现的重点,不在于力士剧烈的动作(vehemence)或外在的挣扎急躁(impetuosity),而在于藉助外在夸张的动作,体现出更高层次内在的艺术象征性。喜龙仁明言,中国雕刻匠师们乃至整个中国文明的伟大贡献,即是发展出举世引以为傲的艺术象征(artiSticsymbols,见原书第23页)。 

  最佳方式去鉴赏解析中国雕刻的艺术成就,厥为通盘掌握造像语言的象征性,佛教造像之所以能成为中国雕刻的主流,奥妙之处亦在于此。我们可依照历代匠师们衍生归纳的造像仪轨(iconographicrules,指无法恁由匠师们发挥自我创意的特殊象征语言),窥知探究中国古代雕刻的艺术美学。整体而言,中国佛教雕像的基本特色是兼重形象美以及心灵之美,透过象征手法,匠师们将有限的造形,融入无穷的精神观照境界,把可以取代西方宗教雕刻动态肢体语言的姿式(postures),或印相(mudras,指symbolicpositionofhands,如禅定印、施无畏印等,参见喜龙仁原书132页),刻划出静穆圆融、庄严慈悲、超凡绝尘的理想境界。 

  汉化风格的服式衣纹 

  喜龙仁是西方世界中第一位以具体实例论列中国雕服式与衣纹特色的艺术史家,他在《五至十四世纪的中国雕刻》专书中多次不厌其烦述及佛教造像服式与衣纹,为什么他服式与衣纹如此不寻常的强调重视呢? 

  服式与衣纹可谓探究历代佛教造像递变轨迹的不可或缺的主轴座标,包括前文述及喜龙仁比较东西方不同雕刻表现方式时,将米开朗基罗的名作“摩西”与唐代龙门高达17.4公尺(头部占4公尺,耳长1.9公尺)的卢舍那大佛在内,排列并比;中国佛像除了头部、四肢之外,身体各部份的外形结构几乎全部均为蔽体袍服的大轮廓所掩盖,由中国雕刻艺术表现的技法而言,喜龙仁认为服式与衣纹对于佛教造像的重要性。实不亚于品评中国山水画和书法等第中居精华要素之一的笔法(brushstrokes)。 

  中国早期佛教造像的服式,脱胎蜕变自春秋战国至秦汉盛行一时的曲裾袍服。这种宽衣博袍服式的特点是:(1)结合上衣下裳,按照《礼记》上所说的“深衣”式样裁制而成(孔颖达注:“衣裳相连,被体深遽,故谓之“深衣””。(2)曲裾(裾指袖端收缩的部位)。(3)造襟(衣襟盘旋下达腋部,旋绕于后);在战国楚墓彩绘木桶以及长沙马王堆一号汉墓中都可找到曲裾袍服出土的实例(参见沈从文的《中国古代服饰研究》)。 

  喜龙仁注意到佛教传入中国后,中原地区最早开凿的北魏皇室石窟,兼倾全国人力营建的国家级石窟--云冈石窟的早期造像,服式多作(1)通肩式(喜龙仁原书42页附图一),呈U字形细密衣纹的宽博长衣,紧贴身上,犹如今日的连衣裙,宽袖;领口处有披巾,近似现在的围巾,从右肩经胸前,披往左肩再向肩后。或(2):袒右肩式,例如昙曜五窟,现今编号为第二十窟,结跏趺坐,高13.7公尺的露天大佛(图四),服式自佛的左肩斜披至右腋下,右胸和右臂皆裸露于外,仅右肩上露出上衣的边缘,衣褶为平行隆起的线条,又以阴刻衣纹装饰细部,衣端形成锯齿状的襞。此两种通肩和袒右肩服式显受印度式造像影响。 

  等到云冈石窟晚期的造像,汉化风格服式纷纷登场。北魏孝文帝迁都洛阳以前所开凿的云冈第二期石窟,如第五、第六窟的主像大佛,全部换上南朝士大夫的褒衣博带式服装,大衣内著僧祇支,双领下垂,衣内有双带供作系结。菩萨也同样变为头戴蔓冠,上披帔帛,下著羊肠大裙的式样。云冈前后期“冕服式”服装式样的变化,实与孝文帝一系列的汉化服式改革(如太和十年“始服衮冕”)相互呼应。 

  不仅佛教造像的服装式样由云冈石窟早期的通肩大衣过渡到云冈晚期的褒衣博带汉化风格,中国佛雕立像和坐像衣纹的基本雏形,亦于北魏时期终告完成。北魏前期太和初年,匠师们业已成功地创造出由简洁遒劲、平行线条组成的立像衣纹,充满动态力感的立像衣褶,外廓刚劲有力,下垂似鸟翅伸张,宛如佛自天下降。另一方面,北魏后期在云冈晚期的石窟以及迁都洛阳后龙门石窟的造像中,坐像的衣纹形式,袈裟覆膝,衣裙下垂,曲折翻覆,重叠掩座,长短衣褶,反覆折叠,繁简不同,千变万化,势如行云流水的线条,造成生动的韵律感,较诸立像如翅而张的衣裾,各有特色,相映成趣。 

  我们可以归纳总结出中国古代佛教雕刻艺术的共同点,为匠师们未加著意刻划造像的肢体动作,或有机造形的写实表现,在他们追求境界更高造像语言艺术象征的同时,竭力将覆盖佛像身体各部结构大轮廓的服装式样,予以概括式几何化的衣纹表达。备受喜龙仁赞赏,在北魏时期云冈石窟即已发展出的立像衣纹和年代稍为晚出的坐像衣纹,均可与既是描写山石的不二法门,又是艺术化处理美化手法,中国山水画中的皴法相比较,古代绘画皴法衍生山石画法的派别。古代从事佛教雕刻的无名匠师,没有记载论述衣纹的要点,厘定出数种坐立像衣纹的基本形式,而称之为某某纹:喜龙仁以西方人士的身份,具体实例申述一千五百年前,在北魏前期完成立像衣纹,继之,又在北魏后期完成坐像衣纹匠师技法的形式分析,发扬中国雕刻艺术,功不可没。 

  代表时代风格的主流石窟与造像中心 

  五世纪起,佛教跃居中国文化艺术的主流。对中国佛像雕刻源流脉络下周功夫的喜龙仁,将北魏以迄唐宋,佛教造像迭经民族化世俗化的发展历程,以年代为经,区域造像为纬,勾勒出时空交错下几个主流石窟和造像中心,在《五至十四世纪的中国雕刻》书中,历代各地佛教造像艺术的风格,提纲挚领,特色明显,其前瞻性以及指标性,还非相同性质的其他中国佛教雕刻书籍可以比拟。 

  日本方面的中国佛像权威松原三郎(SaburoMatsubara)前后花费三十年以上的时间,积心苦虑撰写一本能够汇各时代造像特征的佛教雕刻史。他根据他在东北大学博士论文稿的初著《中国佛教雕刻史研究》(1966年版),即避开多元蜕变、互有异同的几个主流石窟,专就石窟造像以外的石佛和金铜佛作重点研究。一九六六年松原三郎再次出版四大册的《增订中国佛教雕刻史论》,各方褒眨不一,本书的图版虽然较前书齐全,但因这本多方搜集资料的钜著,缺乏喜龙仁前瞻式的将云冈、龙门、巩县、天龙山、响堂上等主流石窟列入论述,有人质疑其是否能够算是中国佛教雕刻的全面代表性著述。 

  国际艺坛人士对喜龙仁赞誉有加的是,他指称的各造像中心,具有强烈的时代指标性艺术风格,举例而言,喜龙仁以河北地区盛产白大理石的造像中心--定州,代表过渡时期的北齐造像风格,与在此之前北魏的造像风格,两者相比之下,呈现两种截然不同的造像风格。北齐时代新的造像风格,特征是:(1)四肢的手脚以及全身部位外形呈圆筒状(Cylindricalshape),(2)头大,胸宽肩阔,(3)衣裳紧贴身躯,衣纹浅刻线条,(4)整体造像倾向于上大下小,近脚处内敛,产生下降收缩的韵律感(图八,北齐白大理石佛立像,纽约GrenvilleL.Winthrop藏品,见喜龙仁原书68页,图版255)。与之相对北魏旧有的造像风格,特征则是:(1)扁平棱角分明的外形(flatandangularshape),(2)头小,肩窄,(3)褒衣博带式宽大袍服,衣裾下垂,似鸟翅伸张,(4)整体造像倾向于上小下大,近脚处向外膨涨,产生向上飘扬的韵律感(图九,北魏正光五年,西元524年,牛猷造弥勒佛像,美国大都会博物馆藏),许多人采取上述喜龙仁分析河北造像中心定州新的造像风格观点,作为北齐时代中国佛像雕刻的艺术特征,这是喜龙仁当初预料不到的。 

  喜龙仁,这位向西方阐述引荐中国佛像雕刻的先驱人物,我们该给予他什么允当的评价定位呢?他在七0年前出版的这本学术地位极为崇高的《五至十四世纪的中国雕刻》,其中偶有错误,例如他把镌刻刘宋元嘉十四年(西元437年)铭文永青文库庋藏的鎏金佛坐像,认为是中国最早有纪元题铭的铜佛(参见原书第33页,应订正为旧金山亚洲艺术馆藏后赵建武四年,338年题铭坐佛,乃是中国最早纪元铭文铜佛),或是一些有关石窟造像的不成熟看法,我们今天看来,仍然是瑕不掩瑜的,他的这本雕刻钜著,或许不是完美的句点,却为中国佛教造像开拓新的研究领域。据悉是影响深远美国艺术史家沃福林(HeinrichWolfflin1864-1945年)的高足,终生为中国雕刻和绘画艺术付出心血的喜龙仁,他的执著和研究,赢得举世无穷的掌声。 

(本文选自紫玉金砂杂志第32期,胡永炎/文)

English Introduction

 He has long been a professor at the University of Stockholm, Sweden. He has visited China many times since 1900. In 1922, he visited Osvald SSiren of Tianlong Mountain Grottoes in person. In 1925, he published Fisheng International's special book "Chinese Sculpture in the Fifth and Fourteenth Centuries". His original purpose was to try to construct Westerners. Scholars can understand and appreciate Chinese sculpture, especially the indicative concept of ancient Chinese Buddhist statues. The book is divided into four volumes, the first volume is a text discussion, including 152 pages of narrative and 168 pages of layout description; Volume II to Volume IV contains 623 plates, including physical pictures of Collotypes (formerly known as glass version).

More than 900 copies. According to the development of the main style of Buddhist statues, supplemented by sculpture physical plate, Hi Longren divided Chinese sculpture into four periods: (1) the ancient and humble period; the Northern and Southern Dynasties, the Northern Wei Dynasty, the Eastern Wei Dynasty and the Western Wei Dynasty. (2) Transitional period; Northern Qi Dynasty, Northern Zhou Dynasty and the Lazy Age. (3) Mature period; Tang Dynasty. (4) Decline and revival period, late Tang, Song and Liao Dynasty.

Generally, Westerners write books about Chinese sculpture, no matter how hard they study it, they are still Western-style views at best. It is difficult to go deep into the core issues of Chinese Buddhist statues. However, Xilongren, who has a keen eye, shows different interpretations of scholarly stereotypes. He pointed out that there was no Western Renaissance in ancient China.

The existence of so-called "sculpture" and "sculpture" is common (see page 15 of the original book). According to historical records, such as Yang Xuanzhi's "Luoyang Galan Ji", I learned that there were workshops supported by Buddhist groups in Luoyang, the capital city of the Northern Wei Dynasty, and Li Linfu's "Tang Dynasty Canon", which belonged to Shaofu Supervisor Zuo Shangjun, was also in charge of "painting and carving". Up to the Song Dynasty, Shaofu Supervisor attached to Wensi Yuan, there were two works of making sculptures and decorating. We can confirm that the Chinese artistic Pulsators in charge of the past dynasties have always been manipulated in the hands of literati, and sculpture works have always been classified as craftsmen industry, failing to enter the Olympics, not listed in the evaluation.

In the book "Chinese Sculpture from the Fifth to the Fourteenth Century", Xilongren, with his remarkable insight, specializes in comparing the different artistic creations of Western and Chinese craftsmen. His "Sculptural problems" actually refer to the different ways of expression of the essence of sculpture. He believes that the western world attaches great importance to the concept of plasticity, focusing on the perfect nakedness of sculpture, the operation of muscles, the organic sense of body shape; whether it is religious or secular sculpture, the Western sculpture with human as its theme, converting the soul to the idea of beauty, and its characteristics. It is the expression of anthropomorphic theory. During the Renaissance, many religious sculptures by Italian sculptor Michelangelo (1475-1564) revealed shock, nerve tension, special soul or internal struggle rather than the tranquility and expression of Chinese Buddhist statues.

The most incisive and attracting international attention is that Hi Long Ren juxtaposes Michelangelo's statue "Moses" and Longmen Fengxian Temple Buddha to compare the different ways of expression of Eastern and Western sculptures. In Hirohito's eyes, Michelangelo's Moses presents: "a highly variable sitting position, tense muscles, dramatic drapery emphasizing motion and tension." On the other hand, Hi Longren analyzed the Luxena Buddha in Fengxian Temple with different purposes: "The complete state of rest and rest, meticulously portrayed positively, legs crossed and sat cross-legged, arms hung down close to the body, the posture can be said to be full of Closed, there is no external centrifugal force trend. A series of long arcs from the broad chest droop constitute the clothing pattern of mantle, with a quiet sense of rhythm, which suitably highlights the overall macroscopic rest harmony. It is worth noting that although the shape is completely covered by gowns, the powerful shape and limb characteristics of the Buddha can be fully recognized. Strictly speaking, the function of the body-covering gown adds to the inner mentality or inner meaning of the characters. The broad face with traditional long ears and spiral hair bun spreads peace and kindness. It is almost individualized, does not strive for it, does not satisfy the inner desire, but can express it directly from the face, which contains a kind of pathos integrated into harmony. Anyone who comes into contact with this great Buddha will intuit his religious meaning even if he does not know his theme. The inner meaning of the theme comes from artistic thinking. Is he a prophet? Or God? Neither of them matters. He is a perfect work of art, transmitted to the viewer through the unification of spiritual ideas. Such works make us realize that since the Renaissance, all the personality portrayals in the long-suffering sculptures are merely the surface ripples of the fountain of life and the source of living water. (Luxury translation from Xilong Ren's original book, page 20.)

In the first volume, Xilongren compares the "Moses" of Michelangelo with the "Luxena Buddha" of Fengxian Temple in the Tang Dynasty in Longmen. He observes the different artistic expressions of religious statues in the East and the West. He observes the Chinese sculpture which does not emphasize the idea of figuration deliberately and does not make perfect figuration artificially. Craftsmen pursue generality rather than individuality, and Buddhist statues tend to be antianthropomorphic. According to this, Hi Long Ren takes two groups of Li Shi statues at the gate of Cave 8 of Tianlong Mountain as representative examples to guide us to find a foothold and a new starting point for the evaluation of Buddhist statues, the mainstream of Chinese sculpture.

For the two groups of dvarapalas at the gate of the Eight Grottoes in Tianlong Mountain, strange! Ming Ming is full of dynamic shapes, but Xilongren believes that its artistic expression is not entirely realistic, but contains symbolic language of statue. The eighth cave excavated in the Sui Dynasty, one of the largest caves in Tianlong Mountain, was less influenced by the Indian style than the 16th cave in the Northern Qi Dynasty earlier in the years. Hi Long Ren especially cited two groups of powerful men in the eighth cave in Tianlong Mountain, which possessed strong characteristics of the times and was considered superior to the resting Buddha or Bodhisattva statues in the cave. Xilongren will frown and look at the Eight Caves of Lishi, like the exaggerated movements of Herculeanforms and muscular movements in the Western world, to interpret their body language symbolic. In addition, craftsmen also skillfully use the flutter of clothes folds to show the dynamic feeling of Lishi's body. In other words, the focus of craftsmen is not on the vehemence or impetuosity of Rex, but on the use of exterior exaggerated actions to embody a higher level of internal artistic symbolism. Xilong Ren clearly said that the great contribution of Chinese sculptors and even the whole Chinese civilization is the development of artistic stic symbols, which are proud of the world (see page 23 of the original book).

The best way to appreciate and analyze the artistic achievements of Chinese sculpture is to master the symbolism of the language of the statue in an all-round way. This is why Buddhist statues have become the mainstream of Chinese sculpture. We can explore the artistic aesthetics of ancient Chinese sculpture according to the iconographic rules derived from the craftsmen of past dynasties. Generally speaking, the basic characteristics of Chinese Buddhist statues are both image beauty and soul beauty. Through symbolic techniques, craftsmen integrate limited shapes into infinite spiritual realm and replace postures or mudras, which can replace the dynamic body language of Western religious sculptures, such as symbolic positionofhands. See Hi Long Ren Yuan Book 132 for Zen Seal and Shi Wudao Seal, which depict the ideal realm of tranquility, harmony, solemnity, compassion and transcendence.

Chinese style clothing pattern

Xilongren is the first artistic historian in the western world to discuss the characteristics of Chinese sculpture style and clothing pattern with concrete examples. In his special book "Chinese Sculpture from the Fifth to the Fourteenth Century", he has repeatedly talked about the Buddhist statues'clothing pattern and clothing pattern. Why does his clothing style and clothing pattern attach such unusual importance?

Clothes and clothing patterns are the indispensable principal axis coordinates for exploring the changing trajectory of Buddhist statues in the past dynasties, including the comparison of different sculpture forms between the East and the West, when Michelangelo's masterpiece "Moses" and Luxena Buddha of the Tang Dynasty, whose head is 4 meters and ear is 1.9 meters. In addition to the head and limbs, the shape and structure of all parts of the body of Chinese Buddha statues are almost covered by the large outline of the body-covering gown. As far as the techniques of Chinese sculpture art are concerned, Hi Longren believes that the clothing style and clothing pattern are important for Buddhist statues. It is no less than the brushstrokes of Chinese landscape painting and calligraphy.

The costume style of early Buddhist statues in China was transformed from the tunic gown which was popular from the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period to the Qin and Han Dynasties. The characteristics of this kind of broad-clothes bogown style are: (1) combined with upper and lower clothes, according to the "deep clothes" style mentioned in the Book of Rites (Kong Yingda notes: "Clothes are connected, the body is deep and rapid, so it is called"deep clothes". (2) Quyi (the part where the sleeve ends contract). (3) Make a skirt (the skirt circles down to the axilla and circles around the back); in the painted wooden barrel of Chu Tomb in the Warring States Period and in the Han Tomb No. 1 in Mawangdui, Changsha, we can find examples of the clothes unearthed (see Shen Congwen's Study of Ancient Chinese Clothing).

After the introduction of Buddhism into China, Xilongren noticed that the earliest Royal Grottoes excavated in the Central Plains area in the Northern Wei Dynasty and the early statues of Yungang Grottoes, a national Grottoes constructed by manpower throughout the country, were mostly in the form of "one-shoulder" style (fig. 1 on page 42 of the original book of Xilongren). They were broad and long clothes with U-shaped fine and dense clothes, which were closely attached to the body as they are today. Dresses, wide sleeves; neckline with a shawl, similar to the present scarf, from the right shoulder through the chest, draped to the left shoulder and then back to the shoulder. Or (2): Right Shoulder Style, such as the Five Grottoes of Tan Tan, which is now numbered Cave 20, sits awkwardly in the open air Buddha (Fig. 4) 13.7 meters high. The clothing Style inclines from the Buddha's left shoulder to the right underarm. The right breast and right arm are exposed outside. Only the edge of the jacket is exposed on the right shoulder. The clothing folds are parallel raised lines and are decorated with shade-engraved clothing lines. Fine, jagged folds at the end of the garment. These two shoulder-opening and right-shoulder clothing styles are obviously influenced by Indian statues.

Until the late statues of Yungang Grottoes, Chinese style clothes appeared one after another. The second stage of Yungang Grottoes excavated by Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei Dynasty before he moved to Luoyang, such as the main Buddha in Caves 5 and 6, were all dressed in the clothes of the scholar-bureaucrats of the Southern Dynasty. The clothes were worn by monks only, with double collars hanging down and double ribbons for tie. Bodhisattvas also changed to wear vine crowns, silk clothes on their heads, and sheep bowel skirts. The change of clothing style of "corona style" in the early and late period of Yungang corresponds to a series of reforms of the Chinese style of clothing of Emperor Xiaowen, such as the "first corona style" in Taihe Decade.

Not only did the clothing pattern of Buddhist statues change from the shoulder coat in the early period of Yungang Grottoes to the Chinese style in the late period of Yungang, but also the basic rudiments of the clothing pattern of Chinese Buddhist statues and sitting statues were completed in the Northern Wei Dynasty. In the early years of Taihe in the early Northern Wei Dynasty, craftsmen had succeeded in creating elegant garment lines composed of concise, strong and parallel lines, with a dynamic sense of elegant garment folds, strong and powerful outline, drooping like bird wings stretching, like Buddha falling from the world. On the other hand, in the later period of the Northern Wei Dynasty, in the caves of Yungang and the statues of Houlongmen Grottoes in Luoyang, where the capital was moved, the clothing patterns of the sitting statues, the knees of the robes, the drooping dresses, the winding and overturning of the dresses, the overlapping shelters, the long and short clothes folds, the folding and folding of the clothes, the complexity and simplicity are different and changeable, such as the lines of running clouds and running water, create a vivid sense of rhythm. Compared with the clothes that stand like wings, each has its own characteristics and interesting contrast.

We can summarize the common points of ancient Buddhist sculpture art in China. For the artists who did not deliberately delineate the body movements of statues, or the realistic expression of organic forms, while pursuing higher artistic symbols of statue language, we try to outline the costume patterns covering the general outline of the body structure of Buddha statues. The expression of garment pattern in bracket geometry. It is highly appreciated by Xilongren. In the period of Northern Wei Dynasty, the clothes of the statues developed in Yungang Grottoes and the clothes of the sitting statues which came out a little later can be compared with the traditional ways of describing mountains and stones, as well as the ways of artistic treatment and beautification. Compared with the methods of grazing in Chinese landscape painting, the ancient methods of painting derive from the factions of mountain and stone painting. Ancient unknown craftsmen engaged in Buddhist sculpture did not record the main points of discussing the clothes pattern, and determined several basic forms of clothes pattern of sitting and standing statues. They called it a certain pattern: Hi Long Ren, as a Western personage, stated with specific examples that 1,500 years ago, the clothes pattern of standing statues was completed in the early period of the Northern Wei Dynasty, and then in the later period of the Northern Wei Dynasty. Like the formal analysis of the techniques of the clothes markers, the development of Chinese sculpture art has contributed a lot.

Mainstream Grottoes and Statue Center Representing the Style of the Times

Since the fifth century, Buddhism has leaped into the mainstream of Chinese culture and art. In the context of the origin and development of Chinese Buddhist sculpture, Xilongren of next week's Kungfu outlines several mainstream grottoes and statue centers in the interlaced space and time. From the Northern Wei Dynasty to the Tang and Song Dynasties, Buddhist statues have been nationalized and secularized. In the book "Chinese Sculpture from the Fifth to the Fourteenth Century", each dynasty has its own history. The style, outline and characteristics of Buddhist statue art are obvious, and its forward-looking and indicators are not comparable to other Chinese Buddhist sculpture books of the same nature.

Saburo Matsubara, the authority of Chinese Buddhist statues in Japan, has spent more than 30 years writing a history of Buddhist sculpture that can collect the characteristics of statues of different times. Based on his doctoral dissertation of Northeast University, The History of Chinese Buddhist Sculpture (1966 edition), he avoided the pluralistic transformation and the similarities and differences of several mainstream grottoes, focusing on the study of stone Buddhas and bronze Buddhas other than grotto statues. In 1966, Sanlang Matsuhara published four volumes of "Revising the History of Chinese Buddhist Sculpture" again, with different praises. Although the edition of this book is more complete than that of the previous book, it lacks the main grottoes of Yungang, Longmen, Gongxian, Tianlongshan and Xiangtang, which are collected by Hi Long Ren in a forward-looking way. Some questioned whether it could be regarded as a comprehensive representative work of Chinese Buddhist sculpture.

International artists praise Hi Longren for his strong artistic style as an indicator of the times. For example, Dingzhou, the statue center rich in white marble in Hebei, represents the statue style of the Northern Qi Dynasty in the transitional period and the statue style of the Northern Wei Dynasty before that. In contrast, there are two distinct statue styles. The new statue style in the Northern Qi Dynasty is characterized by: (1) Cylindrical shape of limbs, hands, feet and body parts; (2) large head, broad chest and shoulders; (3) close to the body, shallow lines of clothing lines; (4) the overall statue tends to be large and small, convergent near the feet, resulting in a sense of rhythm of decline and contraction (Fig. 8, Northern Qi Bai). Marble statue of Buddha, Grenville L. Winthrop Collection, New York, 68 pages of Hieron Ren's original book, plate 255. Compared with the old style of statues in the Northern Wei Dynasty, they are characterized by: (1) flattened angular shape, (2) small head, narrow shoulders, (3) wide gown with bow-belt, drooping jacket and bird-like wings, (4) the overall statue tends to be small and swollen up and down, and the proximal feet swell outward, producing a sense of rhythm of upward fluttering (Fig. 9). In the five years of Zhengguang in the Northern Wei Dynasty and 524 AD, Niu Yao made Maitreya Buddha statues, which are collected in the Metropolitan Museum of the United States. Many people took the above-mentioned viewpoint of Xilongren to analyze the new statue style of Dingzhou, Hebei Statue Center, as an artistic feature of Chinese Buddha sculpture in the Northern Qi Dynasty, which was unexpected by Xilongren.

Xilongren, a pioneer in introducing Chinese Buddhist statue sculpture to the West, what should we give him a proper evaluation position? This book, which he published 70 years ago, has a very high academic status: Chinese Sculpture in the Fifth to Fourteenth Centuries. There are occasional mistakes in it. For example, he regards the sitting statue of the Golden Buddha, which is engraved on the inscription of the Fourteenth Year of Liu Song, Yuan and Jia (437 AD), as the earliest bronze Buddha with the inscription of the Yuan Dynasty in China (see page 33 of the original book, which should be revised). Four years after Zhao Jianwu's collection in the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 338 years ago, he inscribed the Buddha as the earliest inscription of the Bronze Buddha in the epoch of China, or some immature views on grotto statues. Today, we still think that there are many defects. His magnificent carving, perhaps not the perfect ending, opens up Chinese Buddhist statues. New research fields. It is said that Heinrich Wolfflin, a far-reaching American art historian, was a man of great importance who devoted his whole life to Chinese sculpture and painting. His persistence and research won endless applause from all over the world.

(This article is selected from No. 32 of Ziyu Jinsha Magazine, Hu Yongyan/Wen)

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