据肥前平户藩藩主松浦静山（Seizan Matsura，1760~1841年）所著《甲子夜话》中记载：江户时期最权威的儒学者、古文辞学派始祖荻生徂徕（Sorai Ogyu，1666~1728年）受人之请为一幅春画题款。徂徕挥毫题写的，是《老子》中开宗明义的那句著名的偈语：“玄之又玄，众妙之门。”如果是一幅山水的话，对徂徕的题款大可从正面诠释其深意。但作为春画的题款，面对生动养眼的局部特写，徂徕到底想说什么，便只有望“文”生义了。
----------Introduction in English----------
If, according to the subject matter, the Ukiyo painting is divided into beauty painting, landscape painting, drama painting and other categories, then the most impressive one is spring painting. As the spring palace in Ukiyo painting, spring painting has various nicknames, such as pillow painting, winning painting, immersion painting, laughing painting, secret painting, secret opera painting, Yan Xitu, gorgeous painting, Yanben, and so on. Pillow painting is the most popular one (this right is also the general name of Ukiyo spring painting). Utamaro Kitagawa (1753-1806), a generation of painters, has created a large number of pillow paintings throughout his life, which are regarded as the "best" of such paintings. The most famous series of works, called "Song Pillow", means "Song Pillow Painting".
How many spring paintings are there in Ukiyo paintings? Because of the long history and lack of accurate statistical data, it is almost impossible to verify. One is "nearly half". However, according to the research of Japanese scholars, pillow prints published in Edo era (i.e. publicly issued so-called "publications") should be no less than 2,000 kinds. Spring paintings are mostly composed of twelve frames, and some gorgeous books contain several kinds of spring paintings. Based on this, it is inferred that the absolute number of spring paintings should be more than ten times the number mentioned above. In short, it's quite impressive.
Pillow painting can be divided into meat brush painting and printmaking. The former is a painter's hand-painted book, the latter is woodblock printing, mass production of prints. Among the former, although not without the fine works of the first-class painters, most of them are high-priced treasures specially customized by high-ranking officials and Chinese warriors, and the quantity is extremely limited, which is rare and rare. The vast majority of hand-painted books are actually copies of unknown third-and fourth-rate painters. Although they are also known as "gravy pens", their artistic value is far inferior to those of well-known painters. So, just as in the sense of common sense, when it comes to Ukiyo paintings, it refers to prints, when it comes to pillow paintings, it also refers to the latter.
There is a saying in Japanese art circle that "without pillow painting, Ukiyoshi painting can not be talked about" - this saying tells us the position of spring painting in Ukiyoshi painting. Pillow painting, as its name implies, is a figure painting that depicts the sexual behavior of men and women naked. How many people who know something about painting know that it is difficult to draw characters compared with still life and scenery. The Spring Palace paintings in figure paintings have a high demand for techniques, especially sketching skills, which can be said to be more difficult. Ukiyo painting, as an artistic text describing the life of the city in the Edo era, has a wide range of subjects. It can be said that everything in Ukiyo has become its topic of choice, while pillow painting, which takes describing the secrets of the boudoir of the female flower quet as its ability, can be regarded as the ultimate of its art.
Origin of Pillow Painting
Japanese academics generally believe that with the Chinese medical books landing in Japan together, the Nishitu map is the ancestor of pillow painting. In the existing literature, "Yan Side Map" (Tong Yan Xiu Tu) first appeared in the "Medical Illness Order" of "Da Bao Law" promulgated in the first year of Da Bao (701 A.D., the first year of Chang'an, China), which is about a sexual position interpretation map for reference in medical books. In traditional Chinese medicine, atrial surgery is the research object of the eight meridians of the orthodox son of immortality, so this kind of figure to explain posture is indispensable. Unexpectedly, the original imported scientific knowledge, on the island of Confucianism and the fertile land of music culture in the peaceful corner of the East China Sea, soon broke away from its original practical purpose and went on its own, developed and expanded as a spring painting.
Later, it became the watcher's skill of Ukiyo Spring Painting, and the exaggerated depiction of male and female artifacts can be traced back at least to the Ping'an era. The basic form of pillow painting was also established in the same period. From the end of Shiding to the early Edo period, it was a popular era of meat-pen custom painting. As a sub-category of meat-pen pillow painting, it also ushered in its heyday. However, although the meat pen pillow painting culture has been quite developed, but after all, it is only for the noble and wealthy people, such as Gongqing, Wujia, and so on. It has not yet reached the level of common people "like to hear and see".
Regardless of any country, culture and art will become dull and rigid in times of chaos, while in peacetime, it will show the transformation of softening, citizenization and popularization, which is the result of historical law. The latest research results in the field of history show that it is wrong for the traditional Western-centered view of history to regard Japan in the Edo era as a backward country. Tadao Umesao, a Japanese civilized scholar, believes that both Japan and Britain share the common characteristics of island countries deviating from the mainland. The reason why the former lags behind the latter is that the former has adopted an inexplicable policy of lock-up. Otherwise, Japan and Britain may even experience industrial revolution at the same time. Whether this theory is correct or not is another matter. However, as a peaceful and prosperous period of 270 years, the Edo era witnessed a high degree of prosperity in industry and commerce, including the emergence of modern publishing industry with woodblock printing as its core technology, which objectively provided conditions for the maturity and revival of pillow painting as a "lustful culture".
Although the pillow painting originated in China, the blue is better than the blue. Japanese Ukiyoshi painters hold a prejudice against the Spring Palace in China. They think that the Spring Palace culture of all countries in the world is the most boring in China. Because they think that the spring paintings of the East Neighbor from the beginning to the end of the war were essentially the coy and coy of the feet-bound beauty, with thousands of people on one side and no development at all. Although there are also custom descriptions of boudoir secrets and descriptions of sexual organs and postures, the failure of the Spring Palace is that the tiny and poor male roots and the female genitals, which are always like girls, can not arouse the viewer's "passion". They even doubted whether the Spring Palace painters had received basic training in female sketching in a country where Fang Zhongshu was so developed that they had created the Nishitu at an early age.
Whether or not Japanese people hold the "artistic achievements" of the Chinese Spring Palace is another question, but it reveals to us from different aspects the secret of the "success" of the Eastern Spring Painting: paying attention to detail description, emphasizing the existence of sex organs with exaggerated sizes. Western classical painting is based on realism on the basis of anatomy. Like photography, it is not exaggerated, or even has the opposite tendency. For example, when we look at ancient Greek sculptures, the muscles of men are bulky, but the male roots are out of proportion like teenagers. Sometimes it is incredible. For the western society, the island country in the period of the lock-up had a sense of mystery. After such artistic exaggeration, the image of the "Eastern Warrior" seems to be linked with some ambiguous imagination. It is said that there have been Western women who have seen Ukiyo pillow paintings. They have traveled thousands of miles across the sea to Dongying. For no other reason, they want to see whether the men of Dongyang are really like the legendary "Weishore".
Pillow Painting of "Weiyan Dayi"
When it comes to Ukiyo Spring Painting, based on some traditional ideological thinking, it is easy to be regarded as the so-called "props" for men in the patriarchal society, which is basically a wishful imagination of the Eastern society. In fact, the latest research shows that the popularity of pillow painting in the Edo era has transcended the distinction between men and women, the old and the young, and is loved and sought after by almost all people. It has a broad significance beyond sexual power, sexual politics and sex itself.
In the Edo era, spring paintings were also called "laughing paintings", and books with illustrations of spring paintings were called "laughing books". Why? In a large number of Edo pillow paintings, it is true that there are many descriptions of laughing scenes and funny directions, but in any case, quite a number of works simply depict sexual intercourse between men and women. Therefore, the Edo people called "laughing painting", not only refers to those pillow paintings buried with amusing "burden", more often, they feel that the world itself linked to sex is ridiculous.
However, "ridiculous" is not a sneer, nor does it mean contempt, but a heartfelt smile to comfort the heart and relieve the happy knot. This reminds us of the story of the folk myth "Tianzhao Female Destiny": deliberately revealing breasts and females, seducing Tianzhao God to laugh, "without exertion", the problem will be solved. Some common structure is the same as "laughter painting": sex (vulva) - laughter - heart knot.
Edo people's temperament is most annoying to listen to the truth. In their view, a smile from the heart contains the divine power to crush all truth and preach. Perhaps this is what pillow painting is called "laughing painting"?
In Edo era books, it is common to see scenes depicting couples or single men and women using spring paintings as estrus props. As far as their motives and functions are concerned, some of them are similar to modern people watching A films. But after all, pillow painting is only a prop to urge love, at best it is "condiment" and can not be used as a guide to sex. Because in order to depict the sexual behavior of men and women, "vivid and fragrant", pillow painting often deliberately exaggerates the sexual organs and features the posture, thus sacrificing the physical naturalness and rationality of the human body. Therefore, if the pillow painting is used as the blueprint and "processed like this", there will be no good fruit to eat. The ridicule of such pedestrians in Handan not only enriches the subject matter of pillow painting, but also is the "incision" favored by "laugh painting". At that time, a miscellaneous haiku called Chuanliu (a well-formed comic haiku, similar to Chinese oil poems) wrote as follows:
Stupid couples imitate pillow painting to sprain wrists
Reluctant treatment can't help breaking bones and muscles
Another says that young people masturbate by holding pictures of Nishikawa in their hands (referring to pillow paintings painted by Yoshi Nishikawa, a famous painter in Kyoto). However, the "Sichuan Liu" who suffers from kidney deficiency due to excessive indulgence writes:
The young man drew the ladle according to Xichuan.
Injured laughing Book confiscated
The aesthetics of pillow painting is not exclusive to men, but also the Tibetan love of Edo women. A Sichuan willow has a way of saying:
The bookstore woman's cabinet suddenly blew up at something.
Wet the picture book, but it's too late to dry.
A married daughter of a famous family will let her daughter take away the "laughing book" decorated with twelve pictures as her dowry. In some Chinese families, there are few "car crashers" because of the rich contents of such secrets.
These spring paintings are not so much a guide to the marriage life of the daughter married to her husband's family as a prayer for "couple harmony" and the harmony of yin and Yang - something similar to amulet. Because in the traditional simple belief of the Orientals, harmony between men and women is the foundation of all things in the world.
When it comes to Ukiyoshi Spring Painting, people would take it for granted that it depicts all the "good things" that are traded between the travelling girls, geishas and good buyers of spring paintings in Huajie and Liuxiang. A close examination will reveal that the works expressing this relationship are quite limited. Most of them are descriptions of the common customs of men and women.
Although the description is purely ordinary people's sexual customs, but by no means monotonous and boring. Regardless of the combination of men and women, the "broken back" combination of the eyebrow is also common; although a small number, the "broken sleeve" combination of the scarf also occasionally appeared; in addition, there are several "asymmetric" combinations of men, women and men. From the age point of view, adult and mature women are indifferent, young boys and girls, old men and old women take turns on the stage, of course, there is no lack of "cross-generational" combination to break the age order. There are men's seduction and women's seduction; there are amiable intercourse between husband and wife, there are some men and women's derailment and delight; there are women peeping at the household affairs of the pavilion owners and couples, there are men's servants stealing the hostess's "tofu"; there are solitary women's masturbation, there are three people's walks, and even "multi-person walks" feast... As for the position and skill of sexual intercourse, it can be said that there are all kinds of things. Bottom line: The world of Ukiyo Spring Painting is like the Mandalas of human sexual love.
All the great names of the past dynasties have custom-made armor and have the habit of placing a volume of spring paintings in the armor cabinet. Warriors have a long tradition of keeping armour and spring paintings together, which can be traced back to the Edo era and recorded in Sichuan and Liuzhong. There are various explanations for such customs among Japanese people, among which the more convincing one is to pray for "long-term military campaign". In the Meiji period, this habit still existed: during the war between Japan and Russia, as a national policy, a large number of reprints of spring paintings of the Edo era were printed and distributed to soldiers who went to the sands. Later, although the reissue and publication of the national policy ended, until World War II, there were still many soldiers who secretly hid a pillow painting or pornographic portrait in their arms.
A frame of pillow painting can avoid fire, and a frame of pillow painting can block the gun's eye when going to battlefield. From the long-term military campaign to disaster prevention and exorcism, in fact, spring paintings play the role of amulet.
Ukiyoshi Spring Painting, which takes the secular sexual customs of men and women as its object of expression, will naturally be welcomed by the people. But in fact, some of the top intellectuals of the Edo era are also consumers and hardcore enthusiasts.
According to Seizan Matsura (1760-1841), the master of Pinghu vassal in Feiqian, the most authoritative Confucian scholar in the Edo period and the ancestor of the school of ancient Chinese diction, Sorai Ogyu (1666-1728), was invited to inscribe a spring painting. Written with a gentle gesture is the famous Parody in Lao Tzu, which opens with a clear meaning: "Xuanzhi is also Xuanzhi, the door of many wonderful things." If it's a landscape, its profound meaning can be interpreted from a positive perspective. But as the theme of spring painting, facing the vivid and eye-catching local features, we can only look at the "literary" to express what we want to say.
The Artistic Charm of Pillow Painting
The biggest feature of pillow painting is the distortion and exaggeration of male and female sexual organs, in order to more vividly express sexual behavior, a bit like the local close-up shot in A film. However, the close-up of A film does not exaggerate the size, while pillow drawing is not. The deformation of the size is almost a "basic skill".
However, despite exaggeration and distortion, pillow painting is extremely accurate and vivid in mastering the "shape" of male and female implements. It is no wonder that Japanese scholars have questioned whether Chinese Spring Palace painters have received basic training in female genital sketch. Evidence shows that Ukiyo Spring Painters in the Edo era not only have a solid sketch base for long-term copying of ancient brush pillow paintings, but also have "real-life" experience in model sketches. This skill is fully reflected in the details of the picture: at the climax of men's and women's behavior, the gaze between the eyes of both sides, the intense heat of the hands and feet (especially fingertips and toes) and the "expression" all reflect the painter's "non-day cold" practice.
Deformation, which not only realizes the aesthetic purpose of local exaggeration, but also compensates for the unnatural feeling in anatomy, is an extremely hard and difficult creation. Men and women in staggered and embracing positions that are difficult to imagine in reality are neither confined to the "correct" position relationship in anatomy, nor cause visual imbalance and picture imbalance. Through ingenious deformation, while emphasizing the local effect, they have realized the "truth" appropriately. Conversion of Reality. Even though men and women who overlap their hips are reluctant in the overall composition, they maintain a precise balance in the segmented picture, giving the viewer an illusion like looking at the screen. In this illusion of "reality" deliberately created by the artist's exaggeration and distortion, the viewer's eyes are lured into all the details emphasized in the picture. Through the two pairs of eyes of the hero and heroine, the burning sight seemed to hear the man's sharp breathing and the woman's cowlike panting.
This is the Ukiyo Spring Dream entrusted to us by Edo Pillow Painting.