发乎于情 止乎于理--陈星明自述

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 陈星明,江西都昌人。中国民主同盟盟员。毕业于江西九江师专、江西师大美术学院和中国艺术研究院研究生院。现为中国工笔画学会会员、江西省美术家协会会员、九江市美术馆特聘画家、北京市中关村画院画家;江西省书法家协会会员

古人将绘画作品分为“逸、神、妙、能”四品。亘古以来,无数画家孜孜以求,冀其作品可达“逸、神”。于是出现各种绘画风格,各种创作的理念。我认为,可创作出一幅好的作品不外乎 “情”和“理”。

   “感人心者,莫先乎情”。优秀的作品无一不是以充沛的情感打动着观众。谢赫在“六法论”中把“气韵生动”列为第一,至今仍为所有画家张口闭口所提及。然而,作品中如果没有情感,哪会有气韵的存在?又何谈生动一说?可见,“情”在作品中的地位是多么重要!

如何让作品饱含情感?

首先,画家必须提高自身的学养。赵佶通晓琴棋书画,崔白“好古博雅”,徐青藤在文学、书、画、军事诸方面都有很高的成就。此等例子不胜枚举。学识广博,素养全面,古往今来,优秀的画家莫不如是。由此可见,学养成为了画家在作品中发挥想象力和艺术创造力,进而充分表达内心情感的一把标尺。故而,画家必须多读书,以“养浩然之气”,加强“画外功”,提高自身的学养。

其次,画家必须良好的道德品质。“画品即人品”,画家的人品、气质和情操的不同所表现出来的情感也是不一样的。因此,画家自身的道德品质也是不容忽视的。作画不仅是对对象作简单的描绘,而是画自己,画对人生、对社会和自然的感悟。绘画作品既要以高格调给人以美的艺术享受,又应以高格调启迪人们美好的理想和道德情操。

最后,画家必须要有丰富的情感。刘勰的《文心雕龙·神思》里讲到“登山则情满于山,观海则意溢于海”,画家在观察自然物象时必定会揉入自己的情感,或兴奋,或悲伤,或忧郁… … 这种与大自然的心物暗合、神交共鸣是自我的真实感悟,一旦找到了这种直觉和间觉的契合点,创作灵感的火花便可碰撞出来。

“所以绘事之妙,多寓兴于此,与诗人相表里焉……展张于图绘有兴起人意者,率能移精神遐想,如登临揽物之有情也。”《宣和画谱·花鸟叙论》中,这段文字道破了一个道理:画家在进行创作的时候,并不是单纯的物象描绘,而是将自己的精神情感融入作品,进而净化人们的心灵,唤起人们的理想、道德、情操并体现真善美。优秀的绘画作品必定是以强烈的情感打动观众,从而达到观众和作者产生情感的共鸣。

画家创作用情但不能恣意滥情,也就是说不可以只顾情感的宣泄而罔顾物象的形体。我们知道,绘画是造型艺术的一种。如果没有形体,又哪来的造型?对于“形”的论述,自古有之。如顾恺之的“传神论”就提到要“形神兼备”;谢赫“六法论”就有“应物象形”……

然而,绘画里的“形”并不是对物象简单的描摹,应当发现共性,提取个性,对形体的结构、特点要把握精准。正如我们不能把牡丹的叶子画成菊花的叶子,不能把树梢画得比树的底部还要粗壮,不能把竹枝的互生画成了对生或轮生……“胸有成竹”就是要求画家必须对所要描绘的对象的结构、特点烂熟于心。

罗丹说过“美是到处存在的,只是我们缺少一双发现美的眼睛”,这就要求画家要练就一双发现美的眼睛,在不更变物象的结构、特点的前提下根据自己的审美去删减、增添,可作适当的、合理的夸张、变形,做到“致广大,尽精微”。

以上所讲绘画物象的造型,乃绘画之“理”之一也。

此外,绘画创作用色要遵循色彩学的原理;画面构图亦要遵循构图规律。此二项为绘画之“理”又一也。绘画创作中的“情”和“理”是同时并存与画面的。“理”和“情”的关系犹如皮和毛的关系,“皮之不存毛将焉附”啊!“理”是情感宣泄的载体,“情”依托“理”而发。如果画家对形体的结构、特征把握的不准,又怎谈绘画是画自己,是对社会、对人生、对大自然的感悟?如果不遵循色彩的规律、构图的规律,又怎么很好的抒发内心的情感?绘画创作不顾“理”,只管情感宣泄,那只不过是娱己的涂鸦游戏而已;绘画创作不顾“情”,只重“理”,那最多只能算是描绘标本而已。

所以,在绘画创作中, 塑造的物象要“情”“理”并重、“合情合理”,做到发乎于“情”而止乎于“理”。

--------Introduction in English--------

Chen Xingming is from Duchang, Jiangxi Province. Member of China Democratic Alliance. Graduated from Jiujiang Teachers College of Jiangxi Normal University, Academy of Fine Arts of Jiangxi Normal University and Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Art. Now he is a member of China Fine Brushwork Association, Jiangxi Artists Association, Jiujiang Municipal Art Museum, Beijing Zhongguancun Painting Academy, and Jiangxi Calligrapher Association.

Works: Hearing Spring in the Valley and Moon Moon are published in the Magazine of Grand View of Fine Arts; Still Life is exhibited in the 6th Lacquer Painting Exhibition of Jiangxi Province; Xiangyuan is selected in the 1st Lan Culture Painting and Calligraphy Exhibition of China; Hewanglan Lan is published in Literature and Art Newspaper; Qiusi and Dancing to Clarify Shadows are published in Friends of Fine Arts magazine.

Dawn was exhibited at the 6th National Exhibition of Fine Brushwork and Painting, and was collected by the Chinese Association of Fine Arts. It was selected at the 2nd Qibaishi International Calligraphy and Painting Exhibition and was collected. It was selected at the 13th Art Exhibition of Jiangxi Province. In 2012, Cherry Blossom was selected at the National Calligraphy and Painting Exhibition to commemorate the 120th anniversary of Guo Moruo's Birthday, and the Future Star of Xiao Sa Tonglu was selected. The National Exhibition of Chinese Painting Works (2018), sponsored by the Chinese Association of Fine Arts, is "The Picture City of Poetry Township, Handsome Tonglu".

"Gongbi Flowers" was selected in the thirteenth Jiangxi Art Exhibition; "Gongbi Flowers and Birds" was selected in the "Second Jiangxi Chinese Painting Figures and Flowers and Birds Painting Exhibition", sponsored by the Provincial Literary Federation and the Provincial Association of Fine Arts (June 2013); "Following" was selected in the ninth Jiangxi Youth Art Exhibition; "Far" was selected in the "Fourth Jiangxi Chinese Painting Figures and Flowers and Birds Painting Exhibition", by the Provincial Literary Federation and the Provincial Association of Fin Host (2016).

"Xingshu" was selected as the "Fifth Youth Calligraphy Works Exhibition of Jiangxi Province", sponsored by Provincial Literature Federation and Provincial Calligraphy Association (August 2008); and "Xingshu" was selected as the ninth Lintie Exhibition of Jiangxi Province.

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