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【文论精选】孤高清癯:郑板桥的世界

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郑板桥(公元1693—1766年),本名郑夑,字克柔,号理庵,最广为人知的号为“板桥”,又被称作“板桥先生”,江苏扬州兴化县人(清代沿袭明制,兴化隶扬州府),祖籍苏州。历经康熙、雍正、乾隆三朝,是清代扬州画派最为着名的代表性书画家、理论家与文学家。

郑板桥的绘画多以兰、竹为主,自称“四时不谢之兰,百节长青之竹,万古不败之石,千秋不变之人”。他对文人画的审美认识与创作发展有着独到的见解,并提出以少胜多、从传承中革新的美学主张。坎坷的人生经历造就了他现实主义的价值关照,敢于把自己感受到的世态炎凉揉搓进画面和诗文中,这种诗画相互映照,不仅拓展了绘画的内涵,也使得作品的思想境界尖锐深邃,具有较强的批判性。如他在题画诗中所言:“要有掀天揭地之文,震电惊雷之字,呵神骂鬼之谈,无古无今之画,固不在寻常蹊径中也。”



郑板桥出身于书香门第,然而幼年时家道中落,母亲早逝,与父亲相依为命,由乳母一手带大,他曾对这段儿时经历写道:“我生三岁我母无,叮咛难割襁中孤,登床索乳抱母卧,不知母殁还相呼。”其悲戚尤甚,令人读之不禁潸然。虽然时运不济,幼时历经坎坷,然而郑板桥却并未就此被命运击溃,而是更为努力刻苦的勤学苦读。二十岁时郑板桥中秀才,雍正十年(公元1732年)中得举人,乾隆元年(公元1736年)四十四岁高中进士,因此自称为“康熙秀才,雍正举人,乾隆进士。”科考之路的映照,春风得意的求仕之路,也使得他无尽欢畅,进而在进士及第后曾作《秋葵石笋图》并题诗曰:“我亦终葵称进士,相随丹桂状元郎”,并为此篆刻“丙辰进士”图章一枚,其意气风发之态可见一斑。

相对于郑板桥的科考之路,他的仕宦之途却是一波三折。在考取进士以后,按照常规惯例,理应牧守一方,然而他却在京城虚耗一年后,依然没有被授予官职。此后又过了五年的光景,于乾隆六年(公元1741年)才等到了补缺的安排,而具体何时到任却是遥遥无期。于是,郑板桥怀着愤懑与失意的情绪写下了“疯狂甚,取乌丝百幅,细写凄清”的句子。直到乾隆七年(公元1742年),郑板桥才接到了正式上任的旨意,命其走马担任山东范县(今属河南)县令。他在任期间正直为民,受到了百姓的拥护和爱戴,但这种“爱民如子,绝苞苴,无留牍,公文案”的做派,却不见容满清官场。乾隆十一年(公元1746年),他自范县平级调至潍县(今山东潍坊),并没有得到应有的升迁,以至于在《和学使者于殿元枉赠之作》中自嘲道:“潦倒山东七品官”,其间道不尽的辛酸与苦楚亦可窥见。

虽然郑板桥在官位上有希冀升迁的梦想,但他与为己谋私利图谋攀升的目的有着本质区别。郑板桥坎坷的童年经历,继母及同村费氏对他的悉心照料,塑造了他性格中的善良品格,他在潍县任上曾挥就一幅墨竹赠予一位长者,并题有诗句表达了自己勤政爱民的为官信念。诗曰:“衙斋卧听萧萧竹,疑是民间疾苦声。些小吾曹州县吏,一枝一叶总关情。”这首题画诗流传广泛,既被解读为体现了郑板桥个人一心为民的为官之道。但他的亲民与善良却与官场规则,乃至统治阶级的利益背道而驰,因此注定不会被当时的宦海所接纳。乾隆十八年(公元1753年)郑板桥因天灾放粮赈灾一事,终于触犯了其他官员的利益,因遭弹劾愤而挂印辞官。临行之际,他在赠予送行同僚的一幅菊花图中写道:“进又无能退又难,宦途跼蹐不堪看。吾家颇有东篱菊,归去秋风耐岁寒。”表达了他对官场的心灰意冷,与最初的仕宦为民的理想相背离,从此开始了专心创作,鬻画为生的生活。辞官后,郑板桥的生活状态趋于旷达豁然,这在《范县呈姚太守》一诗中得到了充分的体现:“落落漠漠何所迎,潇潇澹澹自为情。十年不肯由科甲,老去无聊挂姓名。布袜青鞋为长吏,白榆文杏种春城。几回大府来相问,陇上闲眠看耦耕。”清王朝自此少了一个勤政廉明的父母官,中国美术史上却增添了一位具有革新精神的卓绝人物,并“寓仁慈于奇妙”,成为“扬州八怪”最负盛名的代表之一,堪称诗书画三绝独具板桥特色的着名文人画家。


郑板桥的作品以其独特的精神面貌与创新魅力深受大众青睐,以至于在中国绘画史上谈及“扬州八怪”与写意兰竹必然会联想到他。

清初艺术创作延续元明以来的趋势,京城的宫廷绘画样式风貌虽然有了新的发展,但清王朝为了维护统治阶级的地位和利益,本着“艺术趣味愈阳春白雪愈雅,愈接近一般下层民众愈俗”的理念,希望依靠艺术上的复古来加强思想统治,因此清初画坛摹古之风盛行,而宫廷对于美术教化功能的繁琐要求和贵族审美趣味的偏狭更导致了画家艺术创作中的种种桎梏。但远离政治中心、经济发展优越的扬州,文化氛围的相对宽松、创作形态的自由多元,画家则能避开禁锢,独辟蹊径开创一种新的艺术潮流。

扬州自隋唐以来,一直是我国重要的经济文化中心之一,享有“天下三分明月夜,二分无赖在扬州”的盛誉。清朝延续了自明末开始出现的资本主义萌芽,得水运之便的扬州更发展成为彼时重要的盐运中心。然而封建社会严苛的等级制度使得富甲天下的扬州盐商并未博得与其经济地位相匹配的政治、文化威望,仓廪的积箧盈藏与“士农工商”的末民待遇使得盐商们寻求“贾而好儒”的途径,攀附仕宦名流以期得到相应的社会地位提升。他们以雄厚的经济财力或效仿文人举办风雅活动,或给予书画家们以物质、生活上的资助,因此不论是出于自身资产的增值的现实考量、附庸风雅世俗爱好的需求或是对于社会文化话语权利的表达,在现实生活中商人阶层开始出现大量购买文人书画作品的现象,这种从巨商大贾到市井商贩活跃的文化氛围并逐渐发展成为一种风尚,直接刺激并推动了扬州书画市场的繁荣发展。也正是这种相对优渥环境,吸引了以郑板桥为代表的“扬州八怪”画家们最终选择隐逸在此抒写自己的艺术追求。

这种由商贾和文人书画家共同营造的繁荣市场必然会改变文人的一些旧有观念,并对其艺术创作产生直接影响。乾隆二十四年(1759年)郑板桥曾经做过一件引起过巨大争议的行为,公开自己的书画润格标准:“大幅六两,小幅二两。书条、对联一两。扇子、斗方五钱……若送现银,则心中喜乐,书画皆佳……画竹多于买竹钱,纸高六尺价三千。任渠话旧论交接,只当秋风过耳边。”郑板桥以戏谑的方式公开“笔榜”、直言不讳润格、投身艺术市场的行为毁誉参半,但是在彼时艺术家作为文化商品生产者,并投入到市场交易中的做法也顺应了市场的需求、符合了当时社会发展的潮流。传统文人价值观的逐步转换和文人画风格日趋世俗化、通俗化的发展,对于文人画绘画风格突破旧的审美范畴,逐步开辟新的面貌、出走更为多元的广阔道路,有着积极的意义。

郑板桥性格刚毅、正直,具有传统儒家文人的道德品质。同时尊崇道法自然、师法造化、追求真实的创作思想,并且具有刻苦、倔强、坚韧的性格特点。观读他的绘画作品,可以感受到他独特的人格魅力与高贵品质。与其秉性相对应,郑板桥尤其钟爱能够体现文人气节与高尚品格的梅、兰、竹、菊四君子题材,其中尤以山野间自然生长的兰花与竹子最为倾心。他的那首脍炙人口,描写竹子的诗:“咬定青山不放松,立根原在破岩中。千磨万击还坚韧,任尔东南西北风。”正是郑板桥借物言志,以竹作为他历经磨难而矢志不移的坚定品质的人格写照。另外,他还用松树、兰花、石头等描绘历寒不靡、隐逸悠闲、坚定不摧等文人气节。郑板桥在绘画题材上表达着人格追求,同时,他的性格亦是他艺术风格形成的重要原因。他倔强清高的秉性决定了他的艺术风格不趋同于一家一势。宋、元、明初的名家画竹多为写实,郑板桥的风格则较为概括、灵动,他一般用黄庭坚的书法画竹竿,一枝枝高高耸起,竹叶略许参照石涛灵动的画法。他自言画竹子没有师承:文与可、吴仲圭善画竹,吾未尝取为竹谱也。东坡、鲁直作书非作竹,而吾画竹往往学之。黄书飘洒而瘦,吾竹中瘦叶学之。东坡短悍而肥,吾竹中肥叶学之。此吾画之取法于书也。他还说:与可画竹,鲁直不画竹,然观其书法,罔非竹也。瘦而腴,秀而拔,欹侧而有准绳,折转而多断续。吾师乎!吾师乎!其吾竹之清癯雅脱乎!不落各家既成之规,追求清癯雅脱的个性语言也正是他的绘画理念。正如刘海粟在《国画苑》中所写:“板桥之兰竹,孤高绝俗,真士人画也。世皆以人重之,是不知画之妙,盖笔墨即表现人格也。”


郑板桥的绘画作品将诗、书、画三者有机统一于画面,形成了诗情画意自然融合,具有独特的板桥特色。

他有较多以兰花为主的作品,并曾在画跋中如此表露心迹:“满幅皆君子,其后一荆棘终之何也?盖君子能容纳小人,无小人亦不能成君子,故荆棘之兰,其花更硕茂矣。”除了体现出作者将兰花和荆棘分别作为君子和小人的符号指向外,丁家桐先生进一步认为:“板桥以君子自喻,但自觉又无法制服小人,或无法摆脱小人,于是便有荆棘兰花之作。应当说,有了阅历,板桥对于世事的认识趋于客观,但也带有某种消极因素,显然是接受了某些宗教的观念。”郑板桥对于兰花的绘制既能做到师法传统与造化,又能不局限于传统布局与法则,另辟蹊径、锐意求新,在深度研习传统笔墨与历代名家作品的基础之上开创了属于自己的个性语言特征。

对于山野之中自然生长的兰花,郑板桥尤为青睐,他在题画诗中写道:“乌皮小几碧窗纱,堪笑盆栽几箭花。楚雨湘云千万里,青山是我外婆家。”一方面,这首诗反映了郑板桥师法造化的创作理念,强调对自然真实的尊重。另一方面,长于深山幽谷中的野生兰花,更符合他的品位和意趣,尤其是在他辞官归乡以后,山中兰花暗香悠长,也契合了他晚年恬淡的生活追求,以及历经宦海沉浮后对天性与心境自由的渴望。他曾在《兰竹图》中题写到:“昔人云入芝兰之室久而忘其香。夫芝兰入室室则美矣,芝兰弗乐也。吾愿居深山绝谷之间,有芝弗采,有兰弗掇,各适其天,各全其性,乃为诗曰:高山峻壑见芝兰,竹影遮斜几片寒,便以乾坤为巨室,老夫高枕卧其间。”这也是郑板桥跳出了读书人“学而优则仕”的价值观束缚,思想渐入通达之境后,获得心灵的自由栖居与感悟。

在郑板桥诸多题材中,最为使人津津乐道并闻名于世的绘画当属画竹。正所谓“板桥画竹,不特为竹写神,亦为竹写生,瘦劲孤高,是其神也;豪迈凌云,是其生也;依于石而不囿于石,是其节也;落于色相而不滞于梗概,是其品也。”郑板桥画竹从不画繁茂的竹林,也不太遵循古法经验,他所绘的竹子以形写神、托竹言志,在笔墨韵味上体现出顶天立地、劲健孤傲、清朗瘦癯的骨气,一如五代山水大家荆浩所言:“生死刚正谓之骨”。郑板桥的画中之竹,具有瘦劲孤高、傲岸独立、倔强不驯、品节爽利的视觉特点。

另外,郑板桥对于画竹的境界体悟更是有着独到的见解,并对后世文人画发展产生深远的影响。他在《竹石图》(纵167.5厘米,横105.5厘米,纸本水墨,私人收藏)中题道:“客舍新晴,晨起看竹,露浮叶上,日在梢头,胸中勃勃,遂有画意,其实胸中之竹,并不是眼中之竹也。因而磨墨展纸运笔,又是一格,其实手中之竹,又不是意中之竹也。步步变相,莫可端倪,其天机流露,有莫知其然而然者,独画云乎哉?”从眼中之竹到胸中之竹再到手中之竹,在经过不同的认知境界后,突破既定法则与物象的局限,方可乘物游心,立足于具体物象的表达基础之上,超脱于对自然外物的描摹,最终形成不拘泥成法的意趣与深刻画面意境。

应该说,坚韧挺拔的清癯之竹正是郑板桥自己的人格写照,无论悬崖峭壁何其险峻,依旧是挺立傲视,无论经历怎样的暴风骤雨,依旧不改豪气干云的气魄与倔强耿直的心性。正如他着名的题画诗《竹》所写的:“咬定青山不放松,立根原在破岩中,千磨万击还坚韧,任尔东南西北风。”辞官归乡,远离官场污浊的郑板桥,心境趋于淡泊宁静,所谓:“宦海归来两鬓星,春风高卧竹西亭。而今再种扬州竹,依旧江南一片青。”郑板桥对于画竹由“眼有成竹”到“胸无成竹”,最后信手写就,而后达到形神兼备、臻于化境,正是“四十年来画竹枝,日间挥写夜间思。冗繁削尽留清瘦,画到生时是熟时”。

总之,郑板桥的绘画反对矫饰,以“真气、真意、真趣”为旨归,以“师法自然”为导向,以“求变求新”为追求,删尽繁冗驳杂的无用细节,提炼最具鲜明特色的精华,最终将“生气妙出”的意境留存于画面,成就了人格与画品的高度统一。他的兰竹世界,体现自己的美学理想与学识意趣,一方面托物言志、抒写胸中意气、以画中物象作为人格写照,另一方面以画寄情、彰显个人忧国忧民的普世情怀。他的书法、诗文与绘画相互映衬,不仅体现了独特的人格精神与审美感受,更是生命体验与思想修养的传达。

(作者系山东美术馆学术研究部副研究馆员)



Zheng Banqiao (1693-1766 A.D.), formerly known as Zheng Yi, with the word Ke Rou and the name Li'an, is best known as "Banqiao", also known as "Mr. Banqiao". He was born in Xinghua County, Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province (the Ming system was followed in the Qing Dynasty, and Xinghua was subordinate to the capital of Yangzhou), and his ancestral home is Suzhou. After three dynasties of Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong, he was the most famous representative calligrapher, painter, theorist and writer of Yangzhou painting school in the Qing Dynasty

Zheng Banqiao's paintings mostly focus on orchids and bamboos, claiming to be "orchids that do not wither in four seasons, bamboos that last for a hundred days, stones that remain invincible through the ages, and people who remain unchanged through the ages". He has unique views on the aesthetic understanding and creative development of literati painting, and puts forward the aesthetic proposition of using less to win more and innovating from inheritance. His bumpy life experience has created his realistic value care. He dares to rub the desolation of the world he feels into the picture and poetry. This kind of poetry and painting reflects each other, which not only expands the connotation of painting, but also makes the ideological realm of his works sharp and profound, with strong criticism. As he said in his painting poem: "it's not an ordinary way to have words that expose the world, words that shock electricity and thunder, talk of God scolding ghosts, and paintings that have no past and no present."

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I < / P > < p > < br / > < / P > < P style = "text indent: 2em;" > Zheng Banqiao was born in a scholarly family. However, when he was young, his mother died early, depended on his father, and was brought up by his nursing mother. He once wrote about this childhood experience: "I was born three years old, my mother had no, warned me that it was difficult to be alone in swaddling, got on the bed and lay with her breast, and I didn't know that my mother would call each other when she died." Its grief is especially serious, which makes people cry. Although he was unlucky and experienced ups and downs in his childhood, Zheng Banqiao was not defeated by fate, but studied harder and harder. At the age of 20, he was a scholar in Zheng Banqiao. He was selected in the tenth year of Yongzheng (1732 AD). In the first year of Qianlong (1736 AD), he was a senior high school scholar at the age of 44. Therefore, he claimed to be "a scholar in Kangxi, a scholar in Yongzheng and a scholar in Qianlong." The reflection of the road of scientific research and the road of seeking an official with high pride also made him endless joy. Then he wrote the painting of okra stalagmite after the Jinshi and later, and wrote a poem: "I will also be called a Jinshi, followed by the number one scholar of Dangui". For this purpose, he engraved a seal of "Bingchen Jinshi", which can be seen from its meaning and style

Compared with Zheng Banqiao's scientific research road, his official career is full of twists and turns. After he was admitted as a scholar, according to the conventional practice, he should be a shepherd. However, after spending a year in the capital, he was still not granted an official position. Five years later, it was not until the sixth year of Qianlong (1741 AD) that the vacancy was filled, but the specific time of taking office was far away. Therefore, Zheng Banqiao wrote the sentence "crazy, take a hundred pieces of black silk and write plainly" with anger and frustration. It was not until the seventh year of Qianlong (1742 AD) that Zheng Banqiao received the official intention to take office and ordered him to serve as the county magistrate of fan county (now Henan) in Shandong Province. During his term of office, he was honest for the people and was supported and loved by the people. However, this style of "loving the people like a son, never leaving a message, no official document case" was not allowed to cover the officialdom of the Qing Dynasty. In the 11th year of Qianlong reign (1746 AD), he was transferred from fan county to Weixian county (now Weifang, Shandong Province), and did not get the promotion he deserved, so that he mocked himself in "the work of Yu Dianyuan, the messenger of harmony and learning", saying: "the seven rank officials of Shandong are down and out", during which endless bitterness and suffering can be seen

Although Zheng Banqiao has a dream of promotion in his official position, he is essentially different from the purpose of seeking self-interest and climbing. Zheng Banqiao's rough childhood experience and the careful care of his stepmother and fellow villager Fei have shaped the kind character of his character. During his tenure in Weixian County, he once waved an ink bamboo to an elder and wrote a poem to express his belief in being an official who is diligent and loving the people. The poem said: "the Ya Zhai lies and listens to the whistling bamboo. It is suspected that it is the sound of folk suffering. Some small county officials in Caozhou are always in love with one branch and one leaf." This painting poem has been widely spread and has been interpreted as reflecting Zheng Banqiao's personal way of serving the people as an official. However, his affinity to the people and kindness ran counter to the official rules and even the interests of the ruling class, so he was destined not to be accepted by the official sea at that time. In the 18th year of Emperor Qianlong's reign (1753 AD), Zheng Banqiao finally violated the interests of other officials by releasing grain for disaster relief due to natural disasters, and resigned due to impeachment. On the occasion of his departure, he wrote in a chrysanthemum picture given to his seeing off colleagues: "it is incompetent to advance and difficult to retreat. The official career is too long to see. There are many Eastern hedge chrysanthemums in our family. When we return, the autumn wind is resistant to the cold of the year." He expressed his frustration with officialdom and deviated from the original ideal of being an official for the people. From then on, he began to concentrate on his creation and make a living by painting. After resigning from office, Zheng Banqiao's living condition tended to be open-minded and suddenly, which was fully reflected in the poem "governor of Yao in fan county": "where are you greeted by the desolate and indifferent? You are Xiaoxiao and Dandan. You refuse to leave Kejia for ten years, and you are old and boring. You hang your name. Cloth socks and green shoes are senior officials, and white elm and apricot are planted in the spring city. You come to the mansion several times to ask each other, and you can sleep and watch the coupling farming in Longshang." Since then, the Qing Dynasty has lost a diligent and honest parent official, but an outstanding figure with innovative spirit has been added to the history of Chinese art, and "kindness is wonderful", becoming one of the most famous representatives of the "eight monsters of Yangzhou", which can be called a famous literati painter with unique Banqiao characteristics

II < / P > < p > < br / > < / P > < P style = "text indent: 2em;" > Zheng Banqiao's works are favored by the public for their unique spiritual outlook and innovative charm, so that when talking about "Yangzhou Eight monsters" and freehand blue bamboo in the history of Chinese painting, we will inevitably associate him with him

Artistic creation in the early Qing Dynasty continued the trend since the yuan and Ming Dynasties. Although the style and style of palace painting in the capital had a new development, in order to safeguard the status and interests of the ruling class, the Qing Dynasty, in line with the concept of "the more beautiful the artistic interest is, the more elegant it is, and the closer it is to the general lower class, the more vulgar it is", hoped to rely on artistic restoration to strengthen ideological rule. Therefore, the trend of imitating antiquity in the painting circle in the early Qing Dynasty prevailed, The cumbersome requirements of the court for the function of art education and the narrowness of noble aesthetic taste have led to various shackles in the artist's artistic creation. However, Yangzhou, which is far away from the political center and has superior economic development, has a relatively loose cultural atmosphere and free and diversified creative forms. Painters can avoid imprisonment and find a new way to create a new artistic trend

Since the Sui and Tang Dynasties, Yangzhou has always been one of the important economic and cultural centers in China, enjoying the reputation of "one-third of the bright moon night and two-thirds of the scoundrels are in Yangzhou". Since the end of the Ming Dynasty, Yangzhou has become the center of the development of capitalism. However, the harsh hierarchical system of feudal society made Yangzhou salt merchants who were the richest in the world not win the political and cultural prestige matching their economic status. The accumulation of suitcases in the warehouse and the end treatment of "scholars, farmers, industry and commerce" made salt merchants seek the way of "Jia and good Confucianism" and cling to officials and celebrities in order to improve their social status. They hold elegant activities in imitation of literati with strong economic and financial resources, or provide material and life support to calligraphers and painters. Therefore, whether out of the realistic consideration of the appreciation of their own assets, the demand for elegant secular hobbies, or the expression of social and cultural discourse rights, the merchant class began to buy a large number of literati calligraphy and painting works in real life, This active cultural atmosphere from tycoons to street vendors has gradually developed into a fashion, which directly stimulates and promotes the prosperity and development of Yangzhou calligraphy and painting market. It is this relatively favorable environment that attracts the "Yangzhou Eight monsters" painters represented by Zheng Banqiao to finally choose seclusion to express their artistic pursuit here

This prosperous market created by merchants and literati calligraphers and painters will inevitably change some old ideas of literati and have a direct impact on their artistic creation. In the 24th year of Emperor Qianlong's reign (1759), Zheng Banqiao once did an act that caused great controversy and made public his standard of calligraphy and painting Runge: "a large amount of six Liang, a small amount of two liang, a note or two, a couplet or two, a fan, a bucket of five money... If you give cash, you will be happy in your heart, both calligraphy and painting are good... Painting bamboo is more than buying bamboo money, and the paper is six feet high and the price is three thousand. When Ren Qu talks about the handover of the old, you should only hear the autumn wind." Zheng Banqiao's behavior of opening the "pen list" in a joking way, being outspoken and engaging in the art market was mixed. However, at that time, as a producer of cultural goods, the practice of artists investing in market transactions also complied with the needs of the market and the trend of social development at that time. The gradual transformation of traditional literati values and the increasingly worldly and popular development of literati painting style are of positive significance for literati painting style to break through the old aesthetic category, gradually open up a new face and take a more diversified and broad road

Zheng Banqiao's character is resolute and upright, and has the moral quality of traditional Confucian scholars. At the same time, he respects the creation thought of imitating nature, imitating nature and pursuing truth, and has the characteristics of hard work, stubbornness and tenacity. Reading his paintings, we can feel his unique personality charm and noble quality. Corresponding to his temperament, Zheng Banqiao especially loves the themes of plum, orchid, bamboo and chrysanthemum, which can reflect the integrity and noble character of literati, especially orchids and bamboo growing naturally in the mountains. His well-known poem about bamboo: "hold fast to the green mountains, stand rooted in the broken rocks. Thousands of grinding and thousands of blows are still tenacious, allowing the wind from southeast to northwest." It is Zheng Banqiao who expresses his ambition through materials and takes bamboo as the personality portrayal of his firm quality of perseverance after suffering. In addition, he also used pine trees, orchids and stones to depict popular literary festivals such as enduring cold, reclusive and leisurely, firm and indestructible. Zheng Banqiao expresses his pursuit of personality in the subject matter of painting. At the same time, his character is also an important reason for the formation of his artistic style. His stubborn and lofty nature determines that his artistic style does not converge with one trend. Most of the famous painters in the song, yuan and early Ming Dynasties painted bamboo realistically, while Zheng Banqiao's style was more general and flexible. He usually painted bamboo poles with Huang Tingjian's calligraphy, with branches rising high, and bamboo leaves slightly referring to Shi Tao's flexible painting method. He said he didn't learn from bamboo painting: Wen Yuke and Wu Zhonggui were good at painting bamboo. I didn't take it as a bamboo manual. Dongpo and Luzhi do calligraphy rather than bamboo, and I often learn from bamboo painting. Yellow books are scattered and thin. I am thin in bamboo and learn from ye. The east slope is short, tough and fat, which is the best of my bamboo. The method of my painting is also based on books. He also said: compared with paintable bamboo, Lu Zhi doesn't draw bamboo, but judging from his calligraphy, it's not bamboo. Thin and plump, beautiful and plucked, side and yardstick, turning and more intermittent. My teacher! My teacher! My bamboo is clean and elegant! His painting idea is not to fall behind the established rules of each school and pursue the individual language of simplicity and elegance. Just like Liu Haisu

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