王春辰:数字绘画艺术正在发生

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 近两年,结合当前前沿的数字新媒体技术的沉浸式艺术展览在国内极为风靡,它以极强的科技感、炫酷的视觉体验以及良好的互动性等特点引得人们的广泛关注,从而促使业内呈现出诸多类似的“网红展”,同时这一趋势现象也让人们愈加关注“技术和艺术的关系”这一话题。

小米时代艺术科技大展现场

事实上,技术、发明创造和艺术本来就是共同并列向前发展的。如同中国隋代李春建造的赵州桥,它既是科学创举,又是艺术杰作;西方历史中的达·芬奇亦是集科学家和艺术家的身份于一身;假如19世纪末的西方在光学理论方面没有进步和发展,可能就不会有印象派的产生,20世纪之后的西方美术史也就要改写。所以,无论身处何时何地,我们必然不能忽视前沿科学技术和艺术之间的相互融合关系,正如吴冠中曾经表达的观点——艺术和科学在思想层面是相通和统一的。

近期,首届数字绘画实验艺术展正在征集进行中,该活动的主要视角无疑是聚焦到了当下前沿的数字信息技术和相关艺术的实践碰撞。在下文中,我们采访了此次展览征集活动的评选委员和学术论坛主持王春辰,希望通过与之对话来解读此次活动的初衷和意义,探讨艺术和科学技术的共生关系。

王春辰

艺术批评家、策展人,中央美院教授、博士生导师,现任中央美术学院美术馆副馆长,从事现代美术史及当代艺术理论与批评研究。

Q:《艺术市场》

A:王春辰

Q:现在艺术界、学术界对数字绘画艺术是否有一个相对共识的定义界定?

A:目前肯定是没有的,相对明确的定义都是滞后的,它肯定是要先有艺术的各种实践、试验,然后人们才能对其进行总结或定义,并且定义通常又有或包容、或狭隘的特点。显然,整个数字艺术包括数字绘画艺术都还在发生的过程之中。

Q:目前国内类似此次数字绘画艺术展的项目应该并不多,您是怎样的机缘参与到这个展览项目的?

A:我是作为评委受邀参与到此次展览的组织工作中。其实我们有一个共识——对于数字绘画艺术,现在大家应该多尝试、多参与其中,无论是职业艺术家身份,抑或精通电脑数字程序的工程师等等,都可以进行数字绘画艺术的创作。我们是希望通过展览征集项目,对数字艺术、数字绘画进行一种讨论和提醒,鼓励大家用新的数字媒介进行艺术创作的实验。

Q:你认为好的、有价值的数字绘画艺术作品应该具备哪些的特点?

A:我觉得最基础的层面还是对艺术视觉方面的尝试性判断。因为数字艺术是数字化的输出,不受当下既有条件的限制,所以创作者可以随心所欲的运用电脑、平板手绘板等数字产品去实验、设想、想象,这就形成了很多不一样的表现形式,例如,大卫·霍克尼用平板进行一种平面的绘画创作;还有艺术家利用电脑绘制出大量图片,然后做成小视频的方式等等。所以利用数字软件、绘制工具等数字化的方式可以进行很多的尝试,至于最终成型的效果怎样,这都随心所欲,它可以是平面的,从而呈现出水墨的效果、油画的肌理等等;也可以是立体的,例如通过3D打印的方式输出立体形象。

Q:你对作品比较看重的第一印象是视觉方面的感官体验?

A:我认为这是其中一个重要的关注点。艺术家通过实验性的创作,在平面视觉构成、或者立体效果呈现上要出其不意,达到一种我们过往通过手工或机械加工的方式所不能企及的效果,这就是很好的结果、属于好的作品,我们开始不要去主观设定它。

对于数字绘画,我们也不要简单的认为它一定是用电子手绘笔通过数据传输到电脑或平板上的视觉图象,它也可以是艺术家对程序、算法设定后生成的一种未知效果。所以,数字绘画的“绘画”一词我想更多是代指一种视觉结果,这个结果具体可以是平面或立体、单色或五颜六色,抑或是一种难以言状的效果,一定要发现它的丰富性和不可预见性。

Q:“数字”更多代指创作的技术、媒介,那么如何看待新科学技术和艺术的关系?

A:科学技术和艺术的融合其实从古至今一直存在,只不过我们处于不同时空,对它的理解度不一样,一些过往的科学技术的发明在今天我们会觉得习以为常,见惯不怪了,举例而言,中国古人发明了毛笔、绢、宣纸,才得以让水墨画传承发展至今,包括西方的油画颜料的制作等等都包含技术在里面。

在人类社会发展中,技术的进步不断地改变着生产力水平,从手工劳作到蒸汽、电器时代,再到今天的数字时代,包括近几年被人们常常提及的人工智能技术。今天,当我们运用代表当下时代科技的电脑或平板等硬件工具去创作,或者运用数据运算、数字程序等软件技术做艺术实践,这都和以往的国、油、版、雕等传统艺术形式不同,这些是创作者可以直接、直观控制的,而数字技术更多是一种间接、非手工直接控制的一种表现,它有很多不可想象、不可预见性,我认为这个点更值得我们关注和探讨。我们没必要非得界定它是技术还是艺术,因为技术和艺术是一种相互并列和包容的关系。一项新技术的发明创造,我们本来就可以理解为一门艺术,可以把它直接进行展示,并不一定非得需要进行艺术语言的转换。

Q:目前欧美地区当代艺术界对数字绘画艺术的实践、认知研究处于什么状态?

A:大家一样,都是刚刚开始,我们处在数字互联的时代,数字艺术所用的电脑、手绘板等媒介工具也都是这些年才相对完善,也是才开始广泛地被运用。

Q:你觉得组织此次数字绘画艺术征集大赛的价值意义体现在哪些方面?

A:其实这次展览的征集活动更多起到的是一个调研、扫描的作用,从而带有一种倡导性、鼓励性的价值。通过此次活动,我们可以大概普查一下国内在数字绘画艺术方面的创作实践是一个怎样的状态,大家都做了什么,怎么做的,到底发展到了一个什么程度,当然如果还有国外的相关人士参与就更好了。

 

首届数字绘画实验艺术展

征集方案

绘画是人类的一项伟大发明,它见证了人类的智力与智慧的存在和发展。它是人类与世界关系的表达的方式,从远古的洞穴壁画、庞培古城的壁画遗迹再到东方的半坡鱼纹和长沙马王堆的帛画,再到绵延至今的中国书画和西方油画等等,都是人类借用各种工具进行图形创造的成就,名之为绘画。人类之绘画由古及今、由中至外,无不是伟大的视觉奇迹。

19世纪中叶人类发明摄影,挤压了绘画对于现实模仿的传播与记录功能,但摄影的机械性以及其背后的一整套技术环节改变了以往的绘画的手工性和材料的直接性。因此,它的发明和存在改变了人类对绘画的认识,甚至惊呼“绘画的危机”,并由此导致现代主义艺术的兴起和此后对绘画的全面的认识与解构,这就是现代主义绘画的历史以及至今的绘画格局。在20世纪,人类又发现、发明了数字方式可以构成世界的存在和表现。这就是今天我们所经历的“数字化时代”,一场数字化革命已然蔓延至生活的方方面面、各个环节。现今的生活世界没有一项事情是不可以数字化的,没有一件生活物品、生活方式不可以以数字化的方式呈现。人类进入21世纪以来,随着计算机技术、网络技术和数字通信技术的高速发展与融合,艺术的方式也被极大地拓宽,产生了具有声光电的数字交互艺术、数字绘画艺术、数字影像、数字雕塑等。艺术的数字化的趋势正滚滚而来,尤其是近几年的沉浸式艺术展,华丽的展示效果和全方位的感官体验,极大的刺激了作为单一视觉的绘画,如何让绘画在数字技术的助推下成为信息时代的艺术语言,成了这次活动的目标和方向。

数字绘画借助数字软件、绘画板、触摸屏,形成了新的一整套绘画工具,但其背后的思维逻辑、运转过程都是亿万级的数字运算,它超越了模拟世界的绘画直接性,是一种以数字运算转换人类行为的新介质,故它的新颖与潜在性都激发了人类的想象和探索。数字绘画自此诞生,全世界的艺术探索者、先行者以饱满的热情投入到探索数字绘画的新图式、新观念的历史潮流中。数字绘画将是艺术史的逻辑发展,也是艺术史的必然去向。因此,数字绘画即是基于计算机虚拟交互生成的艺术形式,也是具有和保留了绘画本体的笔触及视觉特征。

在今天,科学与艺术的联系如此紧密,史无前例;科学技术的变革对艺术的影响和改变全面彻底,前景未知。数字绘画相比传统绘画在美术史的发展阶段还处在萌动与发生过程,但发展迅速,其未来的壮阔令人憧憬,不可否认传统水墨和油画等绘画媒介在当下依然有其自身的独特优势。我们举办数字绘画实验艺术展,一方面是因为数字绘画是过往任何时代未曾出现的一种新介质、新画种,是探索未知视觉世界的利器。另一方面期许这次活动能促进它的发展,激发艺术家、科学家、实验室工程师、程序员、数字绘画工具使用者等都来摸索、尝试这一绘画方式,来丰富、想象、充实、探索数字绘画的未知的可能性。

 

--------Introduction in English--------

In the past two years, the immersion art exhibition combined with the current frontier digital new media technology is very popular in China. It attracts people's wide attention with its strong sense of science and technology, cool visual experience and good interaction, which promotes the industry to present a lot of similar "net red exhibitions", and this trend phenomenon also causes people to pay more attention to "the relationship between technology and art". ” This topic.

_Millet Age Art and Technology Exhibition Site

In fact, technology, invention, creation and art are developing side by side. Like Zhaozhou Bridge built by Li Chun in Sui Dynasty, it is not only a scientific innovation, but also a masterpiece of art; Leonardo Da Vinci in Western history is also a scientist and artist in one; if the West did not progress and develop in optical theory at the end of the 19th century, there would probably be no impressionism, and the history of Western art after the 20th century would have to be rewritten. Therefore, no matter when and where we are, we must not neglect the integration relationship between frontier science and technology and art, just as Wu Guanzhong once expressed the view that art and science are interlinked and unified at the ideological level.

Recently, the first digital painting experimental art exhibition is being solicited. The main perspective of this activity is undoubtedly focused on the current frontier of digital information technology and related art practice collision. In the following, we interviewed Wang Chunchen, a member of the selection committee and chairman of the academic forum of the exhibition solicitation. We hope to interpret the original intention and significance of the event and explore the symbiotic relationship between art and science and technology through dialogue with Wang Chunchen.

Wang Chunchen

Art critic, curator, professor and doctoral supervisor of the Central Academy of Fine Arts, deputy curator of the Art Museum of the Central Academy of Fine Arts, engaged in the study of modern art history and contemporary art theory and criticism.

Q: Art Market

A: Wang Chunchen

Q: Is there a relatively common definition of digital painting art in the art and academic circles?

A: There must be no definitions at present. Relatively clear definitions are lagging behind. It must be based on various practices and experiments of art before people can summarize or define it. The definitions are usually inclusive or narrow-minded. Obviously, the whole digital art including digital painting art is still in the process of taking place.

Q: At present, there are not many projects similar to this digital painting art exhibition in China. How did you get the chance to participate in this exhibition?

A: As a judge, I was invited to participate in the organization of this exhibition. In fact, we have a consensus - for digital painting art, now we should try more and participate in it, whether as a professional artist, or an engineer who is proficient in computer digital programming, etc., can carry out digital painting art creation. We hope that through the exhibition project, we can discuss and remind digital art and digital painting, and encourage you to use new digital media for artistic creation experiments.

Q: What characteristics do you think a good and valuable digital painting should have?

A: I think the most basic level is the trial judgment of artistic vision. Because digital art is the output of digitalization and is not restricted by the current existing conditions, creators can experiment, imagine and imagine with digital products such as computers and flat-panel hand-painted boards at will, which forms many different forms of expression, for example, David Hockney uses flat-panel to create a flat-panel painting; and artists use computers to draw large-scale paintings. Measure pictures, then make small videos and so on. So using digital software, drawing tools and other digital ways can be a lot of attempts, as for the final shape of the effect, it is arbitrary, it can be flat, thus showing the effect of ink, oil painting texture and so on; it can also be three-dimensional, for example, through the way of three-dimensional printing output stereo image.

Q: The first impression you value more about your work is the visual sensory experience?

A: I think that's one of the important concerns. Artists through experimental creation, in the plane visual composition, or three-dimensional effect rendering to surprise, to achieve a kind of effect that we can not achieve through manual or mechanical processing in the past, which is a good result, belongs to good works, we do not start to set it subjectively.

For digital painting, we should not simply think that it must be a visual image transmitted to the computer or tablet by electronic hand-painted pen. It can also be an unknown effect created by the artist after setting the program and algorithm. Therefore, I think the word "painting" in digital painting refers more to a visual result, which can be flat or three-dimensional, monochrome or colorful, or an indescribable effect. We must find its richness and unpredictability.

Q: "Digital" more refers to creative technology, media, so how to look at the relationship between new science and technology and art?

A: The amalgamation of science and technology and art has existed from ancient times to present, but we are in different time and space and have different understanding of it. Some past inventions of science and technology are familiar to us today. For example, the Chinese ancients invented brushes, silks and rice paper, so that ink painting can be inherited and developed to this day, including Western oil painting. The production of pigments and so on all include technology.

 

In the development of human society, technological progress constantly changes production.

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