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Byzantine architecture mainly inherited the Roman style. The early church architecture followed the plane structure and arch coupon structure of Rome and changed. The early centralized style and the "Greek Cross" style in the middle and late period became the main pattern of church layout. The building and mosaic of churches occupied a special position in Byzantine art.
Architecture: mainly embodied in mosaics, murals and holy portraits. The most famous mosaics are in the Cathedral of Saint Vital in Lavena, Italy. The representative works are Glory of Christ, Emperor Justine and Tintin, Emperor Theodora and the Palace of Women.
Mosaic: It is an architectural decorative painting mosaic of small stained glass and stone, which has become the main form of interior decoration of churches.
Points needing attention: Byzantine art development background and characteristics, St. Sophia Cathedral
In the 8th century, King Charlemagne of Frankfurt, in order to restore the prosperity of Rome and the tradition of Rome in culture, also hoped to restore the title of the former Roman Empire, inject the splendid culture into the blood of the semi-barbaric nation, personally lead and assemble artists to create a palace as the center, and revive the trend of classical culture. History calls it the "Carolinian Renaissance". The greatest significance of this revival is the successful integration of Nordic Germanic spirit and Mediterranean civilization.
Architecture: The Achen Palace was the most important architectural project in Charlemagne's era. All the church gates of Achen were to the west. This entrance building to the West was also called the "Western Project".
Sculpture: Roger's Cross in Cologne Cathedral is a representative work of the Otto Dynasty, from which we can see some influence of Byzantine art. St. Michael's Church establishes the independent status of the German region in medieval architecture.
Before Gothic art, left and right art was called "Roman style".
Roman architecture is mainly distributed in the areas where Catholicism is prevalent. The main architectural form of the lecture hall is "Latin Cross". The tower in front of the church becomes one of the symbols of Roman architecture. The typical representative of the church architecture is St. Cernan Cathedral in Toulouse, France. The formation of the true Roman style marked the construction of Durham Church in England. The representative Roman architecture includes St. Kirieada Church in Germany and Pisa Church in Italy. The Roman stone carvings are mainly the "final judgment" of the Orton Church in France.
Points for Attention: Brief Description of the Main Characteristics of Roman Architecture
During this period, with the consolidation of feudal system, the rise of cities, the improvement of peasants'status and the tendency of secularization of religious art, Gothic art paid more attention to the symbolic meaning of art, which was embodied in church architecture and sculpture decoration, stained glass flowers, and the continuous integration of various local styles in the 13th century, gradually forming a unified Gothic style. It is called International Gothic Style.
During this period, the church became the main symbol of the city. Gothic art is a vertex of the development of art throughout the Middle Ages. The rib arch structure is mainly used in the building, and the flying buttresses and buttresses are used for transmission. The most famous Gothic architecture is Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, and the Chartres Cathedral in France is the most representative of Gothic art sculpture. Painting achievements are mainly reflected in stained glass paintings and hand-written illustrations.
Points needing attention: Gothic art, Gothic architecture, Notre Dame de Paris, mosaics, stained glass window paintings (the above explanation for the noun), analysis of the artistic characteristics of Gothic art combined with works