十同年图卷-明朝-人物

古画 浏览 杨丽丽 故宫博物院

《十同年图》卷,明,绢本,设色,纵48.5cm,横257cm。

  本幅无款印。卷后有李东阳书《甲申十同年图诗序》,钤“宾之”(白文)、“大学士章”(朱文)印各一方。之后有闵珪、张达、曾鉴、谢铎、焦芳、刘大夏、戴珊、陈清、王轼、李东阳等10位与会者的唱和诗,诗为七律,或两首,或一首,惟李东阳三首,共十八首,皆本人亲手书,接之是聚会次年(明弘治十七年,1504年)谢铎的《书十同年图后》,刘栋于嘉靖己亥(1539年)所书《书庄懿公同年燕会卷后》、王世贞隆庆己巳(三年,1569年)跋、闵珪玄孙闵声于明亡后所书《甲申十同年图卷后跋》、闵氏裔甥沈三曾于康熙戊辰(二十七年,1688年)所作图考、沈涵七言长诗及民国二十年(1931年)谭泽闿跋。

  这是一幅描写明弘治十六年(1503年)10位高级官员聚会情景的富有纪念意义的群像画。据卷后各人的序与跋,与会10人都是明天顺八年甲申(1464年)的同榜进士,聚会时间为弘治十六年癸亥(1503年)三月二十五日,聚会处在闵珪府第之达尊堂。与会者都是在朝重臣,年龄以闵珪最大,74岁,李东阳最小,57岁。

  画面上人物分为三组,从卷首起第一组三人分别是南京户部尚书王轼、吏部左侍郎焦芳、礼部右侍郎谢铎;第二组四人分别是工部尚书曾鉴、刑部尚书闵珪、工部右侍郎张达、都察院左都御使戴珊;第三组三人分别是户部右侍郎陈清、兵部尚书刘大夏、户部尚书兼谨身殿大学士李东阳。此次聚会经过精心准备,宴饮唱和之外并绘图纪念,画工现场写生,只有焦芳因赴湖南公干,事先预留下旧稿。因此图中每人的相貌均为真实的写照,而人物的组合排列则是画家的安排。背景衬以梧桐、修竹、芭蕉、松树,其间穿插几案、书册、酒具以及童子数人。景物简练有序,不作过多渲染,有意突出显赫的朝廷高官群像,显示出创作的宗旨。

  明代高官举行雅集,与前代雅集的参与者多为致仕老臣或名士不同,除追慕前代“耆英硕德”之外,更有显示自己的地位与政绩之意,对“盛世明君”的赞美在题跋中亦屡屡可见。十同年居高官主要在明孝宗(1487-1505在位)时期,时朝中多正士,宦官和厂卫也都较循谨,整个官僚体系呈现出较为清明的景象。《十同年图》俨然是明代繁盛时期官场最后的写照,六部大臣昔日心存魏阙、威严谨慎的音容笑貌,华贵高雅之气中蕴含的凝聚力,在孝宗以后的朝代中再也找不到了,也正是因为失去这种凝聚力导致了明王朝的灭亡。

  此图当时共画了10本,每家各留一本。此卷是闵家所留,在清嘉庆十五年(1810年)为法式善收藏,是10本中幸存的孤本,为重要的历史文献。 

 

--------Introduction in English--------

 

"Ten-Year Map" Volume, Ming Dynasty, Silk, Coloured, 48.5 cm in length, 257 cm in transverse.

This picture has no stamp. At the end of the volume, there are Li Dongyang's book "Preface to Pictures and Poems in the Ten Years of Jiashen", "Binzhi" (Baiwen) and "Bachelor's Medal of University" (Zhu Wen) printed on each side. Later, there were 10 participants, including Min Kui, Zhang Da, Zeng Jian, Xie Duo, Jiao Fang, Liu Daxia, Daishan, Chen Qing, Wang Shi and Li Dongyang, singing and poems. The poems were seven rhythms, or two, or one poem. There were only three poems by Li Dongyang, totaling 18 poems written by himself, followed by Xie Duo's "Ten Years after the Ten Years of Books" in the following year of the meeting (Hongzhi 17 years of the Ming Dynasty, 1504), Liu Dong in Jiajing Jihai (1539). In 1988, the book "After Yanhui Volume in the same year of Shuzhuang Yigong", the postscript of Wang Shizhenlong's Qingji (three years, 1569), the postscript of Jiashen Ten-Year Picture Volume in the same year of Ming Dynasty, the postscript of Shen San, a nephew of Min's descent, had made a textual research in Kangxi's Wuchen (27 years, 1688), Shen Han's seven-word poem and Tan Zeluo's postscript in the 20 years of the Republic of China (1931).

This is a memorable group portrait depicting the gathering of 10 senior officials in the 16th year of Hongzhi Ming (1503). According to the preface and postscript of each participant after the volume, all 10 participants will be the same-ranked scholar of Jiashen (1464) in the eighth year of Shunzhi tomorrow. The gathering time will be March 25 of Lihai (1503) in the sixteenth year of Hongzhi. The gathering will be held in Dazuntang Hall of Minli Prefecture. The participants were all important ministers of the court. Min Qi was the oldest, 74 years old, and Li Dongyang was the youngest, 57 years old.

The characters in the picture are divided into three groups: Wang Shi of Shangshu, Wang Shi of Nanjing Hubu Department, Jiaofang of left official department, Xie Duo of right courtesy department; Zengjian of Shangshu of Ministry of Industry, Minpu of Shangshu of Ministry of Penalty, Zhangda of Ministry of Industry, Daishan of left imperial envoy of Duchayuan; Chen Qing of right courtesy of Hubu Department, Liu Daxia of Army Department, and Daishan of Hubu Department. Li Dongyang, a scholar of the University, is in good health. After careful preparation, feasting, singing, drawing and commemoration, the artist painted on-site sketches. Only Jiao Fang went to Hunan for official work and reserved the old manuscripts beforehand. Therefore, each person's appearance in the picture is a true portrait, and the arrangement of the combination of characters is the arrangement of the painter. The background is set with sycamore, bamboo, banana and pine trees, interspersed with several cases, books, drinking utensils and children. The scenery is concise and orderly, not too much rendering, intentionally highlighting the prominent image of high officials of the court, showing the purpose of creation.

The high officials of the Ming Dynasty hold elegant collections, which are different from those of the previous generation. In addition to admiring the former generation's "Qi Ying Shuo De", they also show their status and achievements. The praise of "Sheng Shi Ming Jun" is also frequently seen in the inscriptions and postscripts. In the same year, the high-ranking officials were mainly in the period of Xiaozong (1487-1505) in Ming Dynasty. There were many officials, eunuchs and factory guards in the middle of the dynasty. The whole bureaucratic system presented a relatively clear picture. The picture of ten years in the same year is the final portrayal of the prosperous period of Ming Dynasty. Six ministers used to have Wei Que's dignified and cautious voice and smiles. The cohesion contained in the noble and elegant atmosphere can no longer be found in the dynasties after Xiaozong. It is precisely because of the loss of such cohesion that led to the demise of the Ming Dynasty.

Ten copies of the picture were drawn, one for each family. This volume was left by the Min family. It was collected in the fifteenth year of Jiaqing in the Qing Dynasty (1810) as a good French collection. It is the only surviving copy of 10 books and an important historical document.

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