萧云从雪岳读书图轴-明朝-山水

古画 浏览 娄玮 故宫博物院

 

《雪岳读书图》轴,明,萧云从绘,纸本,设色,纵125.3cm,横47.7cm。

  本幅自题七言长诗一首,款署:“壬辰长至,为以至社盟作雪岳读书图。时得三秦好音,附此小歌呈教。钟山梅下弟萧云从。”钤“萧云从”、“尺木子”印2方。“壬辰”为清顺治九年(1652年),画家时年57岁。

  萧云从的山水画风格多样,但贯穿其中的基本风貌是笔墨多方折而枯瘦,且在方折的骨体中加入一些皴擦,略有渲染,显得笔墨丰富而灵活。当时,松江派绘画风靡画坛,其画多柔曲的线条、秀润的笔墨,萧氏则改用直折的线条、枯瘦爽利的墨色,可谓别具一格。《国朝画征录》评论萧云从的画称:“不专宗法,自成一家,笔亦清快可喜。”道出了萧云从绘画风格的关键所在。他的画并非具体地宗法某一家,但可看出是从宋元画法中演变而来,不宋不元,即宋即元,又明确地表现出萧氏自身的艺术特色。此图虽是描绘雪景,表现手法与平时稍异,但仍可看出萧氏画作的典型特征。

  画面采用高远法构图描绘层岩绝巘。布局丰满,但山间茂密树丛的蓬松枝杈使画面气脉贯通,虽满却不迫塞。山石形廓较为方硬,凹陷处的皴擦笔笔精到;树木刻画亦极工致,用笔细劲清快,描绘树干纹理、树叶形状一丝不苟。地子则巧妙地留白,用以表现大面积山石及树木枝干上的积雪。皑皑白雪在以淡墨晕染的阴郁天空的衬托下愈发显得清寂萧索。但近景的树脚、石隙间偶尔显露出数竿篠竹,树木枝干染以藤黄,树叶则分别施以朱红、汁绿,这一切都使观者在寒冬的肃杀气氛中隐隐感受到蕴藏着的盎然生机,在历代雪景作品中可谓别开生面。这一方面是由于作者有着对自然界的独特感受,同时也昭示着萧云从内心涌动的希望。

  其时,明宗室诸王流亡各地,除弘光、隆武、永历等主要政权外,臣民奉宗室起兵抗清者所在尚多,且颇具声势。萧氏作为明朝遗民,无时无刻不关注着这些复国大事。题识中的“时得三秦好音”似即指此类事件。

  萧云从曾精研杜诗,著有《杜律细》一卷。其诗亦继承杜诗传统,多即事忧时之作,如此画题诗便是一例。诗中“皇旅云腾度渭河”、“将军高唱大风歌”等句更是雄浑奔放,音韵铿锵,与画面相互映照,真切地表现出萧云从作为明代遗民的思想感情。

 

--------Introduction in English--------

 

"Xueyue Reading Map" axis, Ming Dynasty, Xiao Yuncong drawing, paper, color, 125.3 cm vertical, 47.7 cm horizontal.

This is a seven-character poem with a section: "Renchen Changzhi makes Xueyue reading maps for even the association. At that time, I got the good voice of Sanqin Dynasty, accompanied by this song for teaching. Xiao Yuncong, the younger brother of Zhongshan Mei. Jun "Xiao Yuncong" and "Chimuzi" are printed on two sides. "Renchen" is nine years of Shunzhi in Qing Dynasty (1652). The painter was 57 years old.

Xiao Yuncong's landscape paintings have various styles, but the basic style throughout them is that the brush and ink are multi-folded and thin, and some rubbing is added to the folded bones, rendering slightly, showing rich and flexible brush and ink. At that time, Songjiang School painting was popular in the painting circle, with its flexible lines and elegant brush and ink, while Xiao Shi's use of straight lines and thin and sharp ink was unique. Commenting on Xiao Yuncong's paintings in the Collection of Paintings of the Guo Dynasty, Xiao Yuncong said: "It is not a patriarchal clan, it is a family of its own, and the pen is also delightful and refreshing." It points out the key of Xiao Yuncong's painting style. His paintings are not specific patriarchal clan, but it can be seen that they evolved from the painting of Song and Yuan Dynasty. Without Song and not Yuan Dynasty, that is, Song and Yuan Dynasty, they clearly show Xiao's own artistic characteristics. Although this picture depicts the snow scenery, the expressive technique is slightly different from the usual ones, it still shows the typical features of Xiao's paintings.

In the picture, the strata and rocks are depicted by the method of high-altitude composition. The layout is full, but the fluffy branches of the dense bushes in the mountains make the picture full but not forced to congest. The shape of the hills and rocks is more square and hard, and the grazing brush in the depression is exquisite. The description of trees is also exquisite. The brush is delicate, vigorous and quick, and meticulous in describing the texture of the trunk and the shape of the leaves. The ground is cleverly left blank to show the snow on large areas of rocks and trees. The white snow is more and more quiet and desolate against the background of the gloomy dark sky. But the close-range tree feet and gaps occasionally reveal a number of poles of camphor, tree branches dyed with gamboge, leaves were applied with vermilion and juice green, all of which make the viewer feel the hidden vitality in the destructive atmosphere of cold winter, which is different in the works of snow scenery of past dynasties. On the one hand, it is because the author has a unique feeling of nature, and at the same time, it shows Xiao Yun's hope surging from the heart.

At that time, the imperial kings of the Ming Dynasty were in exile everywhere. In addition to the main regimes of Hongguang, Longwu and Yongli, there were still many people in the imperial clan who started to fight against the Qing Dynasty, and they had great momentum. As a survivor of the Ming Dynasty, Xiao always pays attention to these important events. In the inscription, "the good sound of the three Qin Dynasties at the right time" seems to refer to such an event.

Xiao Yun has studied Du's poems intensively and written a volume of Du's Ruxie. His poems also inherit the tradition of Du's poems, which are mostly about worrying about the times. Such painted poems are an example. In the poem, "Emperor Yun Tengdu Weihe River" and "General Gao Song of the Great Wind" are more vigorous and unrestrained, the rhyme is strong, and the pictures reflect each other, which truly reflects Xiao Yuncong's thoughts and feelings as a survivor of the Ming Dynasty.

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