郎世宁等平定西域战图册之凯宴成功诸将士-清朝-人物

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《平定西域战图》册之《凯宴成功诸将士》,清乾隆,郎世宁等绘,纸本,铜版画,每开纵55.4厘米,横90.8厘米。

  画幅上部乾隆皇帝御题“凯宴成功诸将士得诗八首”,款识:“庚辰上巳日作,御笔。”钤“古希天子”圆形朱文印。

  此为《平定西域得胜图》册中的一开,图绘时年51岁的乾隆皇帝于乾隆二十六年(1761年)正月,在修葺一新的西苑紫光阁,为西征的将士们举行庆功宴的场景。西征将士与被邀请的满、蒙、回王公贵族在紫光阁前分列两旁,跪迎乘坐肩舆而来的乾隆皇帝,场面隆重而热烈。由于《平定西域得胜图》册是在西洋画家创作的基础上,又经法国人刻制而成的,因此,它带有浓郁的西洋绘画风格,图中所绘楼阁、宝帐、树木、桥、塔等写实逼真,富有立体感。乾隆皇帝及众官兵的形象已失去了他们本身的肖像画的特征,具有西洋人深目高鼻的神采。

  西域是西汉以后对甘肃玉门关以西地区的总称,至公元19世纪末,西域之名才废弃不用。乾隆朝时,位处西域的准噶尔部达瓦齐、阿睦尔撒纳和回部大小和卓木霍集占兄弟先后反清。乾隆皇帝遂遣兵西征并平定了他们的叛乱。乾隆皇帝为了弘扬将士们不畏艰辛、骁勇善战的顽强精神,谕令宫廷西洋画家郎世宁王致诚艾启蒙安德义创作了表现当时主要战役进程的《平定西域战图》册(共16开)。图成后,乾隆皇帝为了使大清的业绩彪炳史册,弘扬军威国力,谕令两广总督李侍尧将《平定西域得胜图》画稿送交法国,由掌握娴熟铜版画技术的法国宫廷良匠柯升、勒巴等人制成铜版。历时11年后,印成的铜版画与铜刻版及原画稿均送回中国。

 

--------Introduction in English--------

 

The "Successful Officers of Kai Banquet" in the book "Battle Maps of the Western Regions", the paintings of Qianlong and Lang Shining in the Qing Dynasty, paper and copper prints, each 55.4 centimeters in length and 90.8 centimeters in breadth and breadth.

The upper part of the painting is Emperor Qianlong's imperial title, "Eight Poems of Successful Officers and Geng Chen's Sunday Works, Imperial Pen." Jun "Guxi Tianzi" circular Zhu Wenyin.

This is the opening of the book "The Winning Picture of the Peaceful Western Regions". The picture shows the 51-year-old Emperor Qianlong holding a celebration banquet for the generals and soldiers of the Western Expedition in the first month of Qianlong's 26th year (1761). The generals of the Western Expedition and the invited princes and nobles of Manchu, Mongolia and Hui lined up in front of the Ziguang Pavilion, kneeling down to meet the Emperor Qianlong who came by shoulder public opinion. The scene was solemn and warm. As the book "The Winning Pictures of the Peaceful Western Regions" is based on the creation of Western painters and carved by the French, it has a strong Western painting style. The pavilions, treasure tents, trees, bridges and towers painted in the picture are realistic and full of three-dimensional sense. The images of Emperor Qianlong and his officers and soldiers have lost their own characteristics of portraits, and have the look of Westerners with deep eyes and high noses.

After the Western Han Dynasty, the Western Regions were the general name of the area west of Yumenguan in Gansu Province. By the end of the 19th century, the name of the Western Regions was abandoned. During the Qianlong Dynasty, the brothers of Dawazi, Amur Sana, Hui and Zhuo Muhuo Ji, who were located in the western region, fought against the Qing Dynasty successively. Emperor Qianlong sent his troops to the West and put an end to their rebellion. Emperor Qianlong, in order to carry forward the indomitable spirit of the generals and men who feared hardship and bravery and were good at fighting, instructed the Western painters Lang Shining, Wang Zhicheng, Ai Qienmeng and Ander Yi to create a Book of Battle Maps for the Peace of the Western Regions (totally 16 pages). After the painting was completed, Emperor Qianlong ordered Governor Li Shiyao of Guangzhou and Guangzhou to send the draft of "Winning the Peace of the Western Regions" to France in order to make the achievements of the Qing Dynasty stand out in the history books and carry forward the military power. The copperplate was made by the French court craftsmen Kesheng and Leba who mastered the techniques of copperplate. After 11 years, the copperplate prints, copperplate prints and original drawings were sent back to China.

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