伦勃朗-夜巡画作赏析

 

《夜巡》荷兰画家伦勃朗·哈尔曼松·凡·莱因于1642年创作的一幅布面油画作品。现藏于荷兰阿姆斯特丹国立博物馆。

该画作是阿姆斯特丹城射手连队的群像画,画中人物以近舞台剧的形式表现,近处有两人,其一身穿黑军服,披着红披巾,头戴黑礼帽,另一个穿着黄色军服戴着黄色的帽子。其他人则或持长枪,或挥舞旗帜,或互相议论,队伍出发时的紧张气氛跃然纸上。

画作内容

该画作在构图上采用接近舞台效果的手法,既让每个人的形像都出现在画面上,又安排得错落有致,且明暗对比强烈,层次丰富,富有戏剧性。

此画是为阿姆斯特丹城射手连队画的一幅群像,画面采取的是近舞台剧的形式,队伍纷纷涌上街头,画中两位身着不同服装的人走在队伍的前列,构成了画面的中心。他们一个身穿黑军服,头戴黑礼帽,披着红披巾,一个穿着黄色军服戴着黄色的帽子。二人正在沉着镇静地商议问题,准备对整个队伍的行动作出决议。其他队员跟在他们身后,有的手持长枪,有的挥舞旗帜,有的在互相议论,队伍出发时的紧张气氛跃然纸上。在人群中还有一个形象鲜明的小女孩,夹杂在人群中惊慌失措的样子,是整个画面的意外插曲,有人认为她是光明和真理的化身,是唤起人们反抗异族统治的光荣记忆。

创作背景

1642年,射手队长班宁·柯克上尉和他手下的队员每人出100荷兰盾,请伦勃朗画一幅集体像。当时,市民的军队已不再有仗可打,变成了富裕市民的社交俱乐部,他们热衷于请画家给自己画像,以此来显示武功,而这些穿戴整齐,衣着光鲜的年轻人们也颇受到市民们的青睐。班宁·柯克队长看到伦勃朗为牧师安思罗和他的妻子所画的肖像,他很喜欢这样的绘画,自卫队的队员们的审美情趣也大致如此,他们希望画一幅群像。在这个群像中,官兵们全副武装地披挂起来,团坐在桌子周围,桌上摆着牡蛎和精美的盘子和酒器,每个人都显得很勇敢和骄傲。伦勃朗接受了定件,因此创作了《夜巡》这一画作。

艺术鉴赏

该画作在构图上一反陈规,画面采用接近舞台效果的手法,既让每个人的形像都出现在画面上,又安排得错落有致,塑造了一个庄严有序的战士出征场面。班宁·柯克队长正对着副官下达命令,两个主要人物处于画面中心,两条向中心移动的斜线增加画面的动势,强化了画面宏伟的巴洛克风格

这幅画的明暗对比强烈,层次丰富,富有戏剧性。画面上多数的人笼罩在淡淡的光线之中,看不清眉眼,有的只露出一部分脸面,只有柯克队长、他的副官还有那个小女孩全身沐浴在光线中,成为全体队员中最为突出的人物,其他人物都被安排在了暗色调的中、后景中,或者只露出一张脸,或者只有一个模糊的轮廓,在画面上起着力学上的作用。

整个画面使用和胜利相关的黄色作为主要渲染色调,无论是金发璀璨的小姑娘,和画中人物大部分的衣着背景等都铺了一层黄色柔光。这也是伦勃朗的惯用技法——透明厚涂,先用灰白色以厚涂法画出画面整体的素描效果,再用透明油彩一层又一层地敷上,于是最后得丰富的色彩变化。于是使得整幅画色彩斑斓、层次分明,鲜活动人。

名家点评

现代散文家、画家丰子恺:“在这幅画中,伦勃朗采用强烈的明暗对比手法,用光线塑造形体,使画面层次丰富,富有戏剧性。打破了巴洛克艺术中那种极其豪华、强调运动、讲究排场的法则,更多地关注人物的内心活动。”

后世影响

《夜巡》是一幅革新的画作,它把传统的荷兰群像绘画改变为耀眼的光线、色彩和动态,使传统肖像画的要求从属于一个更大的、更杂的、联结的整体,使原有的群像绘模式发生巨大变化,是一件有重大历史意义的现实绘画。

历史传承

《夜巡》这幅作品,在创作完成后不久即被画作的雇主——射手队的队员们带回去了,因为画作太大无法挂在门厅里面,队员们就自行把周边裁掉,这样也使得整幅画丧失了原有的平衡。而且挂这幅画的大厅是烧泥炭明火取暖的,时间久了,炭灰就在画上落了厚厚一层,使得整幅画色彩变得暗淡,以至于到了18世纪,人们把这个原本是白天的场景误以为是在夜晚进行的,从而给这幅画取名为《夜巡》。后来一直被荷兰王室所收藏,直到19世纪阿姆斯特丹国立博物馆成立后,一直作为其馆藏珍品被保存着。

作者介绍

伦勃朗·哈尔曼松·凡·莱因(1606—1669),荷兰现实主义绘画巨匠。生于莱顿一个磨坊主的家庭,家境贫寒。曾跟随当地画家亚各布学画,后来又到阿姆斯特丹学画。1632年开办新画室,进行了大量创作。他的一生留下了500多幅油画,把荷兰的肖像画、历史画和风景画发展到了极致,为油画的发展作出了贡献。他的主要作品有《杜普教授的解剖学课》《夜巡》《花神》《浪子回头》《一百荷兰盾的版画》《浴女》等。

 

--------Introduction in English--------

 

The Night Tour is a canvas oil painting created by the Dutch painter Rembrandt Halmanson Van Rein in 1642. It is now hidden in the National Museum of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The painting is a group portrait of the Amsterdam City Sagittarius Company. The characters in the painting are in the form of a near-stage play. Nearby, there are two people, one wearing a black uniform, a red shawl, a black hat, and the other wearing a yellow military uniform and a yellow hat. Others held long guns, waved flags, or talked to each other, and the tension of the team as it set out leapt to paper.

Content of the painting

The composition of the painting uses the technique of approaching the stage effect, which not only makes everyone's image appear on the screen, but also arranges it in disorder, with strong contrast between light and shade, rich levels and dramatic.

This painting is a group of portraits for the Amsterdam City Sagittarius Company. It takes the form of a near-stage play. The teams rush to the streets. Two people in different costumes walk in the front of the team, forming the center of the picture. One of them was wearing a black uniform, a black hat, a red shawl, and the other was wearing a yellow uniform and a yellow hat. The two men are calmly discussing the issue and preparing to make a decision on the action of the whole team. Other players followed them, some holding long guns, some waving flags, some arguing with each other, and the team started out in a tense atmosphere. There is also a vivid little girl in the crowd, mixed with panic in the crowd, which is an accidental episode of the whole picture. Some people think that she is the embodiment of light and truth, and the glorious memory of people's resistance to alien rule.

Creative Background

In 1642, Captain Banning Kirk, the shooter captain, and his team members each produced 100 Dutch guilders. Rembrandt was asked to draw a collective portrait. At that time, the army of the citizens was no longer fighting, but became a social club for the wealthy citizens. They were keen to invite painters to paint themselves to show their martial arts. These well-dressed and well-dressed young people were also very popular with the citizens. Captain Benin Kirk saw Rembrandt's portrait of Reverend Anthropol and his wife. He liked it very much. The aesthetic tastes of the Self-Defense Forces were similar. They wanted to paint a group of portraits. In this group, the officers and soldiers were draped in full armour, sitting around the table with oysters and delicate dishes and wine vessels. Everyone seemed brave and proud. Rembrandt accepted the order and created the painting Night Patrol.

Art Appreciation

The composition of the painting is contrary to the stereotype. The painting uses the technique of approaching the stage effect. It not only makes everyone's image appear on the picture, but also arranges it in disorder, creating a solemn and orderly scene for soldiers to go on a journey. Captain Banning Kirk is giving orders to the adjutant. The two main characters are in the center of the picture. The two diagonal lines moving towards the center add momentum to the picture, which strengthens the magnificent Baroque style of the picture.

This painting has a strong contrast of light and shade, rich layers and dramatic. Most of the people in the picture are shrouded in the light. They can't see their eyebrows clearly. Some only show part of their faces. Only Captain Kirk, his deputy and the little girl are all bathed in the light. They are the most prominent figures in the team. Others are arranged in the middle and back of the dark tone or in the background. Only one face, or only one blurred outline, plays a mechanical role in the picture.

The whole picture uses the yellow color associated with victory as the main rendering tone. Whether it is a blonde girl or the background of most of the characters in the painting, it is covered with a soft yellow light. This is also Rembrandt's usual technique - transparent thick painting. First, it draws the overall sketch effect of the picture with gray-white thick painting method, then it is applied layer by layer with transparent oil color, and finally it has rich color changes. So it makes the whole painting colorful, hierarchical and lively.

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