维米尔-戴珍珠耳环的少女

 

《戴珍珠耳环的少女》是17世纪荷兰画家约翰内斯·维米尔于1665年创作完成的一幅油画。是约翰内斯·维米尔的代表作之一。现收藏于荷兰海牙莫瑞泰斯皇家美术馆。

该画描绘了一名身穿棕色衣服,佩戴黄、蓝色头巾的少女,气质超凡出众,宁静中淡恬从容、欲言又止的神态栩栩如生,看似带有一种既含蓄又惆怅的、似有似无的伤感表情,惊鸿一瞥的回眸使她犹如黑暗中的一盏明灯,光彩夺目,平实的情感也由此具有了净化人类心灵的魅力。 [1] 

该画采用了全黑的背景,十分烘托少女外形轮廓,似乎她是黑夜里的明灯,微微的光彩,不夺目不耀眼,十分温和。画面之中构成强烈视觉效果。

画作内容

该画背景铺满黑色,衬托出少女的形象。画面中的少女穿一件棕色的外衣,白色的衣领、蓝色的头巾与垂下的柠檬色头巾相互映衬,她侧身转头面向画外,嘴唇微微张开,左耳佩戴的珍珠耳环若隐若现,少女的形象与黑色的背景形成对比,凸显立体。

创作背景

17世纪中期正是荷兰的文化艺术逐渐失去其本来的文化特色的特殊时期,在荷兰新兴的资本主义制度下,社会赋予人民更多的民主和自由,好像春雨复苏大地,万物觉醒。这也使得美术摆脱了宗教和宫廷的束缚,更加广泛地面向世俗生活。新兴资产者和市民阶层为了给自己树碑立传,美化生活环境和附庸风雅,大量订购油画。基于这样的创作土壤,画家们也不再关注社会重大题材的表现,而是更多地注重对生活细节的描绘以迎合资产阶级和市民阶层的审美趣味。“荷兰小画派”在这样的氛围中便应运而生了。维米尔就是其中的代表人物之一。

《戴珍珠耳环的少女》即正是画家在这个时间段内所作,并于1665年创作完成的,据说,画面里的女主人公是以他当时年仅14岁的长女玛利亚为模特儿的。

作品鉴赏

在该画中,维米尔描绘了一名身穿黄色“日本和服”式外衣,佩戴黄、蓝色头巾的少女。画中少女的气质超凡出众,宁静中淡恬从容、欲言又止的神态栩栩如生,这种既含蓄又惆怅的、似有似无的伤感表情在维米尔的笔下熠熠生辉,惊鸿一瞥的回眸使她犹如黑暗中的一盏明灯,光彩夺目,平实的情感也由此具有了净化人类心灵的魅力。

画面另一个令人瞩目之处,在于少女左耳佩戴的一只泪滴形珍珠耳环,在少女颈部的阴影里似隐似现。既是点睛之笔,也有特殊寓意。珍珠在维米尔画中常象征贞洁,因此有专家认为该画很可能画于少女成婚前夕。

在画作中,作者以闪烁着光芒的珍珠耳环将少女明亮的双眸、娇嫩的

唇瓣白色的衬衣领口耳后的黑暗空间等分散区域结合在一起,使之构成一个鲜活的整体。

同时运用了大量的漫射光线的微妙变化来表现画作各处的质地和形状,在这一点上其甚至已经达到了煞费苦心的绝对精确,不论是少女耳朵上的珍珠耳环,还是头巾服饰抑或是面部,都用大胆的明暗区分和较纯的颜料给予鲜明的诠释,这既实现了绘画的精确和细腻的完美表现,却又不使画面看起来有任何费力或刺目之处。

在深度背景的映衬下,少女仿佛从暗处以光彩十足的凛然姿态出现,用最亮丽的光影突出了自己鲜活的生命力。

维米尔特别喜欢用蓝色和柠檬黄,在《戴珍珠耳环的少女》中,柠檬黄是作为少女头巾中的一小部分而出现的,并且与蓝色是贴合在一起的。黄、蓝头巾,棕色衣服,仍是惯用的三原色搭配,只是稍微减少了红色的分量,头巾中的黄、蓝两色面积占画面比重不能都不大,尤其是柠檬黄这种极高调的颜色与占大比重的衣服统一了色系,这样使画面没有变得脆弱、易碎,也没有把作品拉到大红大绿的过于俗气中,看上去很和谐,很安静。

重要展览

2012—2014两年时间中,维米尔的杰作在日本的东京、神户、美国的旧金山、纽约、亚特兰大、意大利的博洛尼亚等地进行了巡回展出,《戴珍珠耳环的少女》是其中之一。

后世影响

中国当代艺术家靳尚谊的新作展:“靳尚谊《向维米尔致意》”2011年6月11日在中央美术学院美术馆开幕,其《向维米尔致意》组画分别是《惊恐的带珍珠耳环的少女》、《新戴尔夫特风景》和《戴尔夫特老街》。

美国女作家特蕾西·雪佛兰于1999年创作了同名小说《戴珍珠耳环的少女》,试图破解这位女孩的身世之谜。

作者简介

约翰内斯·维米尔(Johannes Vermeer;Jan Vermeer),出生于荷兰代尔夫特(1632年10月31日—1675年12月15日),荷兰优秀的风俗画家,被看作“荷兰小画派”的代表画家。是17世纪荷兰绘画的第三个重要代表。荷兰在17世纪是欧洲经济繁荣的强国,文化艺术相当发达,产生了哈尔斯伦勃朗,在欧洲艺术史上占有特殊的地位。

维米尔是继哈尔斯伦勃朗之后独树一帜于17世纪中期的大家,只活了43岁,死后又被人遗忘,直到19世纪中期才被艺术评论家们重新发现,从此名声日隆,给了他以应有的地位。他被称为“沉睡了两个世纪的司芬克斯”,是“谜一样的画家”。

 

--------Introduction in English--------

 

The Girl with Pearl Earrings is an oil painting created by the 17th century Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer in 1665. It is one of the representative works of Johannes Vermeer. It is now collected in the Royal Museum of Art, Morettes, The Hague, the Netherlands.

The painting depicts a girl dressed in brown clothes and wearing yellow and blue headscarves. She is extraordinary in temperament, calm and calm in tranquility, expressive and lifelike. It seems to have a sad expression which is both implicit and melancholy, and seemingly invisible. A glance of surprise makes her look like a bright lamp in the dark. Dazzling, plain emotions also have the charm of purifying the human mind. [1]

The painting uses a completely black background, which sets off the outline of the girl. It seems that she is a bright lamp in the night, with a slight glory, not dazzling, very gentle. Strong visual effect is formed in the picture.

Content of the painting

The background of the painting is covered with black, which sets off the image of a girl. The girl in the picture wears a brown coat. The white collar, the blue scarf and the pending lemon scarf match each other. She turns her head sideways and looks out of the picture. Her lips are slightly open. The pearl earrings on her left ear are visible. The image of the girl contrasts with the black background and highlights the stereo.

Creative Background

The mid-17th century was a special period when Dutch culture and art gradually lost its original cultural characteristics. Under the new capitalist system in the Netherlands, society gave people more democracy and freedom, like spring rain reviving the earth and awakening all things. This also frees art from the bondage of religion and court, and makes it more widely used in secular life. New bourgeoisie and citizen class order oil paintings in order to build their own monuments, beautify the living environment and appendage elegance. Based on this creative soil, painters no longer pay attention to the performance of major social themes, but pay more attention to the details of life to cater to the aesthetic interests of the bourgeoisie and the public. "Dutch Painting School" came into being in such an atmosphere. Vermeer is one of the representatives.

The Girl with Pearl Earrings was created by the painter during this period and completed in 1665. It is said that the heroine in the picture was modelled on his then 14-year-old eldest daughter, Maria.

Appreciation of Works

In the painting, Vermeer depicts a girl wearing a yellow "Japanese kimono" jacket and a yellow and blue headscarf. The girl in the picture is extraordinary in temperament, calm and calm in tranquility, expressive and lifelike. This kind of sad expression, which is both implicit and melancholy, seems to have nothing, shines brilliantly in Vermeer's pen. A startling glance at her makes her like a bright lamp in the darkness, brilliant, and plain emotions possess it. The charm of purifying human soul.

Another striking feature of the picture is a teardrop-shaped Pearl Earring worn by the girl's left ear, which appears in the shadow of the girl's neck. It is not only the finishing touch, but also has special implications. Pearls often symbolize chastity in Vermeer paintings, so some experts believe that the painting is likely to be painted on the eve of a girl's marriage.

In the painting, the author uses shining pearl earrings to make the girl's bright eyes delicate.

The white shirt collar, the dark space behind the ear and other scattered areas are combined to form a vivid whole.

At the same time, the use of a large number of subtle changes in diffuse light to express the texture and shape of the painting everywhere, in this regard, it has even reached the painstaking absolute accuracy, whether it is the Pearl Earrings on girls'ears, headscarf costumes or the face, with bold distinction between light and shade and more pure pigments to give distinct. The interpretation, which not only achieves the precise and delicate painting of the perfect performance, but also does not make the picture look any effort or dazzling.

Against the background of the deep background, the girl appears from the dark as if she were in full splendor and awe-inspiring posture, highlighting her vivid vitality with the brightest light.

Vermeer especially likes to use blue and lemon yellow. In The Girl with Pearl Earrings, lemon yellow appears as a small part of the girl's headscarf, and it fits with blue. Yellow and blue headscarves and brown clothes are still the usual three primary colors. They only slightly reduce the weight of red. The area of yellow and blue in the headscarf can not account for a large proportion of the picture. Especially lemon yellow, which is a very high-key color, has unified the color system with the clothes that account for a large proportion, so that the picture does not become fragile and fragile. Nor did they pull the works to the common customs of big red and big green. They looked very harmonious and quiet.

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