米勒-拾穗者画作赏析

 

《拾穗者》(英语:The Gleaners;法语:Des glaneuses)是法国巴比松派画家让·弗朗索瓦·米勒于1857年创作的一幅布面油画,现存放在巴黎的奥塞美术馆中。该画描绘了农村秋季收获后,人们从地里拣拾剩余麦穗的情景,该画人物形象造得真实生动,笔法简洁,色调明快柔和,凝聚着米勒对农民生活的深刻感受,是现实主义艺术风格的典型代表作。

图片描绘了一个农村中最普通的情景:秋天,金黄色的田野看上去一望无际,画面最前方是三个农妇,在收割后的田地里弯腰捡拾遗留在地上的麦穗,三个农妇在画面上斜向排开,姿态各异,动作不同。画面最右边的妇女,侧脸半弯着腰,手里捏着一束麦子,正仔细巡视那已经拾过一遍的麦地;中间扎红色头巾的农妇正快速地拾着,另一只手握着鼓鼓的袋子,看得出她已经捡了一会儿了,袋子里小有收获;扎蓝头巾的妇女像是刚过来,左手握着右手捡来的麦穗,敏捷地把它们放在背后,手里只有一小撮。她们拾得那么认真、那么仔细,唯恐漏掉一个麦穗。背景是一片收割的田地,广袤无垠,麦垛堆积如山,一片收割忙碌的景象,一辆载满麦子的马车正要赶走,右上方还有一个骑在马背上同时用手指着那些农夫的人,还有许多农夫正在劳作。

创作背景

19世纪中期以前,西方人一直把油画作为上层社会的专利。油画中虽然也有一些表现农民生活的作品,但都是以讽刺的形式出现的,不过是贵族们茶余饭后拿来取乐的谈资。直到现实主义画家米勒以农民画家的身份出现,这种情况才得以悄悄地改变。 法国一些艺术家以描写生活真实为创作的最高原则,艺术家们正视赤裸裸的现实,大胆而不加粉饰地描写现实生活,肯定普通人在艺术中的意义,揭露资本主义社会的罪恶。 

1849年,黑热病在巴黎泛滥。为了躲避瘟疫,米勒携家迁居到了巴黎郊区枫丹白露附近的巴比松村。巴比松村美丽的自然风光和朴实的民风极大地震撼了米勒。从此,他在这里过上了早出晚归的农夫生活,但是他并没有因此放弃他热爱的绘画。每天晚上回到家里,他都会在昏黄的灯光下创作。也正是此时,农民开始走进他的画面,他也因此找到了适合自己的题材。后来,他说:“无论如何,农民这个题材对我来说都是最合适的。”《拾穗者》就是在巴比松生活这一时期的作品。

艺术鉴赏

米勒描写的“拾麦”这种行为在以前的法国是经常可以见到的。麦田的主人,在收割的季节允许一些儿童和妇女到田野里拾取麦穗,相传这种习惯,是古代希伯来人传来的。米勒用这样个寻常的拾穗动作表现了广大劳动人民的困苦和农民生活的艰辛。虽然从某方面来讲,允许贫苦人民在田间捡拾麦穗体现了粒粒皆辛苦和对贫苦人民的同情,但是从另一角度来看,拾穗这种行为又恰当地体现了农民生活的疾苦。米勒没有用上层人民作为画面的主人公,而是选用三个普通的农民,并且是三个妇女,动作上表现出与现实生活中一样真实的农民在田地里干活的场面,因为在米勒看来,脚踏实地劳动着的农民形象本身就是美的,米勒只是把平凡生活中最能反映人物内心本质的一瞬间定格下来,拾穗虽然是很常见的动作,却在作者的画笔下得到了升华。画面中她们没有愤怒,没有埋怨,只有虔诚地捡麦穗,这种虔诚好似无声的呐喊,震撼着统治阶级。在画面右上方有一个骑在马背上仿佛地主管家的人物,他用手指着那些干活的农民,似乎嘴里还在斥他们,这个细节点明了农民是在给地主干活,他们劳累了一年,也没有带来富裕,还要靠拾麦穗来补充口粮,多么让人心酸的场面。三个农妇在烈日下拾捡麦穗辛勤劳作的画面,使富饶的农村丰收景象与农民的辛酸劳动形成了对比,真实地表现了人民生活的艰辛,深刻揭示了背后的阶级矛盾。农民画在19世纪产生并表现出深刻的阶级矛盾和当时的社会环境是分不开的。

画面中三位农妇都着头巾,但米勒却使用了红、黄、蓝三种不同的颜色来表现,红、黄、蓝三原色在这里运用得十分巧妙,画面整体使用了迷人的暖黄色调,红、蓝两块沉稳浓郁的色彩融于柔和的黄色调子中,使整个画面安静又庄重。前景中的安静和后景中紧张的劳动形成鲜明对比,同时又把前景同后景的劳动关系紧密联系起来,画面和谐,如同一曲交响乐。米勒笔下的形象都不很细致,五官是模糊的,只以粗线条来勾勒人物的大轮廓,以其人物造型来体现其生动性。

在构图上,米勒采用了黄金分割率对画面进行整体安排,红头巾的农妇是整幅画的黄金分割点,蓝头巾的农妇是红头巾的农妇与画面左边边界的黄金分割点,而黄色头巾的农妇又是红头巾的农妇与画面右边边界的黄金分割点。画面三个主人公均处于画面的黄金分割点位置,使使画面和均衡,体现了米勒精心巧妙的构图设计。这幅画与米勒的其他作品比较,在构图上还有一个显著的不同之处——即前景的人物都在地平线以下,不像《晚钟》《数羊女》中的人物超越地平线。而且所表达的情感也不同,不像《晚钟》《数羊女》是在低头析祷,表现农民纯补的心与度减的宗教情怀。同时,近景的三位主人公形象大小上要比远景的麦草堆、马车、收获人的形象高大许多,按按照这种比例来说他们之间的距离应该非常遥远,可是当你看国面时后面的形象又清断可见,作者刻意地奇张前景与后景的比例关系,来表达画面的主题思想。仔细观察这幅作品可以发现三个主人公的视平线不同,最右边半起身的农妇,可以看到她的脸和手心,表明观察描绘她的视平线在她的下面,需要仰视她,而左边的两个农妇,可以完全看到她们的背部,说明视平线在人物的上面,需要俯视她们。

据说画面中的的三位妇女是以米勒的祖母、母亲和姐姐为原型创作的。右方站得较高且一手扶着盖的像是祖母,看起来年龄稍大些,体态微胖:中间的妇女像是母亲,她最耐劳苦,从穿着上看她双臂上带着护袖,想想必是家里干活最多的,她拾得麦穗也最多,挂在身上的袋子里面已经装满了遗落的麦穗:左侧的是一位年轻的农家女,应该是女儿,她戴着蓝色头市,体型苗条,她俯身拾穗的动作很敏捷,右手拾起麦,又马上由左手拿到背后,姿态显得非常优美。虽然从看不清这三个农妇的相貌及脸部表情,但从体态动作和衣着上依然可以分辨她们的年龄和身份。

作者简介

让·弗朗索瓦·米勒(1814-1875)出生于法国诺曼底省格鲁契村的一个农民家庭,兄妹多而和睦,自幼参加田间劳动,淳厚朴实是他天生的秉性,勤劳清贫成了他生活的习惯。他23岁到巴黎,拜画家德拉罗什为师,由于师生不和谐而离开。到卢浮宫向米开朗基罗普桑曼特尼亚作品学习。1849年迁到巴黎附近的枫丹白露,后又迁到巴比松村定居。以《簸谷者》为起点,开始了他那伟大的农村风俗画的创作。此后27年坚持边劳动边作画,上午下地干农活,下午在家作画,生活贫困,常有“断炊之虞”。他的绘画主要反映农民生活,他满怀对受苦农民的无限深情,以深厚朴实的绘画语言去歌颂农民那种真挚、勤劳、朴实、善良的美德,反映他们生活的不幸与顽强的生命力。对这不合理的社会予以揭示与控诉。他是一位典型的批判现实主义画家,一生画了80多幅作品。主要作品有《播种者》、《拾穗者》、《牧羊女》、《晚钟》、《小鸟的捕食》等。米勒的艺术语言十分平静,造型概括,情调含蓄,笔法朴实。他常常用默写的方式来记录他的感受和印象,画风苍茫沉寂,质朴凝重,色调浑厚,感情真挚动人,人物形象庄重而富有纪念碑性。

名家点评

法国文学家罗曼·罗兰:米勒画中的三位农妇是法国的三位女神。

法国艺术评论家朱理·卡斯塔奈里:现代艺术家相信一个在光天化日下的乞丐的确比坐在宝座上的国王还要美;当远处主人满载麦子的大车在重压下呻吟时,我看到三个弯腰的农妇正在收获过的田里捡拾落穗,这比见到一个圣者殉难还要痛苦地抓住我的心灵。这幅油画,使人产生可怕的忧虑。它不像库尔贝的某些画那样,成为激昂的政治演说或者社会论文,它是件艺术品,非常之美而单纯,独立于议论之外。他的主题非常动人,精确;但画得那样坦率,使它高出于一般党派争论之上,从而无需撒谎,也无需使用夸张手法,就表现出了那真实而伟大的自然篇章,犹如荷马和维吉尔的诗篇。

重要展览

2012年11月16日,《米勒库尔贝和法国自然主义:巴黎奥赛博物馆珍藏》在上海中华艺术宫进行展览,其中,米勒的代表作品《拾穗者》在此次展览中展出。

 

--------Introduction in English--------

 

The Gleaners (English: The Gleaners; French: Des Glneuses) is a canvas painting created in 1857 by Jean-Francois Miller, a French Barbizonian painter, which is now stored in the Art Museum of Osei in Paris. The painting depicts the situation of people picking up surplus wheat spikes from the ground after the harvest in the autumn in the countryside. The figure in the painting is vivid, concise, bright and soft in tone. It embodies Miller's deep feeling of peasant life and is a typical representative work of realistic artistic style.

The picture depicts one of the most common scenes in the countryside: in autumn, the golden field looks endless. At the front of the picture are three peasant women, bending down to pick up the wheat ears left on the ground after harvesting. The three peasant women are obliquely arranged on the picture, with different gestures and movements. The woman on the right side of the picture, half bent, holding a bunch of wheat in her hand, is carefully inspecting the wheat field that has been picked up once; the farmer in the middle wearing a red headscarf is picking it up quickly, while the other hand is holding a drum bag. She can see that she has picked it up for a while, and there is a small harvest in the bag; the woman in the blue headscarf is picking up a little harvest. It's just come over, the left hand holding the wheat ears picked up by the right hand, and nimbly put them behind, with only a handful in hand. They picked it up so carefully and carefully that they would not miss a ear of wheat. Background is a harvested field, vast, piled-up stacks of wheat, a busy harvesting scene, a carriage full of wheat is about to drive away, there is a rider on the horseback at the same time pointing at the farmers, there are many farmers are working.

Creative Background

Before the mid-19th century, Westerners had always regarded oil painting as a patent of the upper class. Although there are some works about peasants'life in oil paintings, they all appear in the form of satire, but they are just talks for pleasure by nobles after tea and dinner. It was not until realistic painter Miller appeared as a peasant painter that this situation was quietly changed. Some French artists take describing the reality of life as the highest principle of creation. They face up to the naked reality, describe the real life boldly and without gloss, affirm the significance of ordinary people in art and expose the evil of capitalist society.

In 1849, kala-azar spread in Paris. In order to avoid the plague, Miller and his family moved to Babison village near Fontainebleau, a suburb of Paris. Miller was greatly shocked by the beautiful natural scenery and simple folk customs of Babison Village. From then on, he lived here as a farmer who came home early and late, but he did not give up his favorite paintings. Every night when he came home, he would create in the dim light. It is also at this time that the peasant began to enter his picture, and he therefore found his own theme. Later, he said, "In any case, the subject of peasants is the most appropriate for me." The Spike Picker is a work of the period during which Barbizon lived.

Art Appreciation

Miller's description of "picking up wheat" is often seen in France in the past. The owner of the wheat field allowed some children and women to gather ears of wheat in the field during the harvest season. It is said that this custom was handed down from ancient Hebrews. Miller showed the hardship of the working people and the hardship of the peasant life with such an ordinary action of picking up spikes. Although in one way, allowing the poor people to pick up wheat ears in the field reflects the hard work of grains and sympathy for the poor people, from another point of view, the act of picking up ears properly reflects the suffering of farmers'lives. Miller did not use the upper class people as the main characters of the picture, but chose three ordinary farmers and three women, who acted as real peasants working in the field as in real life, because in Miller's view, the image of the down-to-earth working peasants itself is beautiful, Miller just put forward In ordinary life, the most reflective moment of the character's inner essence is fixed. Although picking up spikes is a very common action, it has been sublimated in the author's brush. In the picture, they have no anger, no complaint, only piety to pick up ears of wheat, this piety like silent cry, shocking the ruling class. At the top right of the picture is a man riding on horseback as if he were a supervisor. He pointed at the peasants who worked as if they were still scolding them in his mouth. This detail shows how sad it is that the peasants are working for the landlords. They have been tired for a year and have not brought wealth. They still have to pick up ears of wheat to supplement their rations. Scene. The picture of three peasant women picking up wheat ears and working hard in the scorching sun contrasts the rich rural harvest scene with the bitter work of peasants, truly expresses the hardship of people's lives, and profoundly reveals the class contradiction behind it. Peasant paintings emerged in the 19th century and showed profound class contradictions, which were inseparable from the social environment at that time. [1]

The three peasant women in the picture all wear headscarves, but Miller uses three different colors, red, yellow and blue. The three primary colors of red, yellow and blue are used ingeniously here. The whole picture uses charming warm yellow tone. The two steady and strong colors of red and blue melt into the soft yellow tone, making the whole picture quiet. And solemn. The quietness in the foreground is in sharp contrast to the tense labor in the background. At the same time, it closely connects the foreground with the labor in the background. The picture is harmonious, like a symphony. Miller's images are not very meticulous, the five features are blurred, only with thick lines to outline the characters.

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