法国画家保罗·高更-我们从何处来?我们是谁?我们向何处去?画作赏析

 

《我们从何处来?我们是谁?我们向何处去?》(Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?)是法国画家保罗·高更于1897年创作的布面油画,现藏于美国波士顿美术馆。

该画呈现了不同性别、不同年龄的裸体人物的形象。最右边的是一个刚刚诞生的婴儿,象征着人类的诞生;中间是一个正在采摘苹果的青年,寓示着人类的生存发展;最左边是一个老妇的形象,代表人类的生命将终结。整幅作品向观者展现了人类从生到死的三部曲。画面中大部分的人物肌肤色彩鲜亮。在鉴赏这幅作品的时候,人们能够看到许多令人迷惑的形象,能够感受到一股神秘的魅力,其中蕴含的哲理引发人们对人生的深层思考。

绘画在一片热带丛林中展开,画面中心是一个站立的中年人正在采摘野果,有着暗示亚当采摘智慧之果之意。他的右边,前景中坐着三位正热烈交谈着的女子,女子旁边是个熟睡的儿;远处是两个穿长袍的母女相互搀扶着向远方走去。他左边的前景里,分别是小女孩、青年妇女和老妇三人,她们神态各异,各自独立成像也许象征着人一生中三个不同阶段;远处有一尊神秘而古怪的神像,神像两边是一大一小正在祈祷的两个妇女。地面上还画着具有象征意味的小猫、黑山羊、鸟和蜥蜗等动物。整个画面完全是稳定的蓝色和绿色,鲜艳的橙色、黄色裸体突显在幽暗的风景前面,增添了作品的神秘感。

创作背景

高更的一生充满了传奇色彩,他年轻时当过水手,周游过世界许多地方。后来从事证券交易工作,取得了极大成功,娶妻生子过着幸福的生活,并在这时期开始进行绘画创作和收藏活动。但他日益厌倦文明世界的欺骗和狡诈,想回到人类淳朴、自然的幼年状态中去。为此,他放弃了拥有的一切,两度到太平洋南部的塔希提岛进行艺术创作和定居。在岛上,他的生活贫困潦倒,又患上了严重的疾病,当听到自己最爱的小女儿死亡的噩耗时,他的精神彻底崩溃了,他服毒自杀,想彻底结束自己的生命,可是自杀未遂。这次事件后,他又投入到了空前高涨的艺术创作中,1897年,高更怀着悲痛完成了《我们从何处来?我们是谁?我们向何处去?》。

艺术鉴赏

这幅画是画家对人生的总结,也代表着他最后的彻悟。放逐自己的高更,带着现代文明人的烙印,只能在精神层面去追逐自己心灵中的人类乐园,但他要承受更多的文明人无法解脱的迷茫、忧伤、困惑和焦虑。他把这种种复杂的感情凝聚在具有象征意义的绘画形式之中,把人类原始的记忆,真实的现在以及遥远的未来都浓缩在画面上。把“认识自己”这一人类的千古哲学命题,通过自己的画笔作了一次象征意义上的解答,也让自己的灵魂得到解脱和升华。

从绘画技巧上看,这幅画以平涂为主的造型手法使画面更加简洁而庄重,抽象化的背景衬托出了人物形象,使它富有东方的装饰性与浪漫色彩,同时具有壁画的风格。

在色彩上高更更喜欢使用红色与橘红色、蓝色与绿色、紫色与暗褐色,使得画作在色调上比起他的早期作品显得更加斑驳绚丽,如梦如幻,而在构图上也变得更为直接而大胆,反映出画家的狂放不羁。

背景中是塔希提特有的山峦、热带雨林和海洋,它们如同来自远古的血脉,纵横交错,贯穿在历史的长河里。高更采用的人物形象都来自岛屿上的土著居民,他刚到这里便对他们印象深刻,他们无论男女全都自然地赤裸身体,从不会感到羞涩或者禁忌,映着热带的阳光,露出橙黄发亮的肤色。透过女孩子们神秘的眼神,人们或许会和高更一样,感觉到那久已消逝的往昔。为了让每一部分的含义明亮、清晰,高更简化了形体,他采用单纯的轮廓和近于平涂的艳丽色块,营造出神秘、奇异的氛围。

名家点评

广东工业大学艺术设计学院硕士研究生导师罗胜京《中外美术名作欣赏=ARTWORK》:此画是高更把多年来对塔希提岛的印象与梦中的幻想相结合之作,是一幅不加修饰的纯净的幻象之作。

青岛科技大学艺术学院副院长、教授马延岳《外国美术史》:画中风景部分呈现出稳定的蓝色和委罗内塞式的绿色,风景前面突现着橙黄色的裸体人物,树木、花草、果实等植物皆象征着时间的弋逝和“无法理解我们的来去之谜”。画面的装饰性处理手法与色彩完整统一,共同营造一种辉煌深沉的气氛。这是画家多年来在塔希提感受到的原始而质朴的生活印象及人生哲学的综合体现。

历史传承

这幅画1898年被画家在塔希提岛送给了乔治·达尼埃·德·蒙弗雷德,后来经过多次转手,最终于1936年为纽约的哈瑞曼画廊得到,当年即以8万美元的价格转给波士顿美术馆,成为该馆新的镇馆之宝并一直流传至今。

重要展览

2015年2月8日,保罗·高更回顾展在贝耶勒基金会美术馆(Fondation Beyeler)开幕,此次借来的展品一个亮点是《我们来自哪里?我们是谁?我们要去那里》,这件作品由波士顿艺术博物馆借出,是非常稀有的举动

作者简介

保罗·高更(1848~1903),法国画坛上继印象主义之后产生重要影响的艺术革新者,与·高、塞尚同为后印象派三巨头。出生于巴黎,母亲有秘鲁人血统。他强调大胆的线条和装饰性的色彩,作品追求原始性,带有很强烈的象征意义。代表作有《两个塔西提女人》、《拿水果的女人》、《我们朝拜玛丽亚》、《芳香的土地》以及《我们从何处来?我们是谁?我们向何处去?》等。

 

--------Introduction in English--------

 

Where did we come from? Who are we? Where are we going? Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? It is an oil on canvas created by French painter Paul gauguin in 1897.

The painting shows nude figures of different genders and ages. On the far right is a newborn baby, symbolizing the birth of mankind; In the middle is a young man picking apples, indicating the survival and development of mankind; On the far left is the image of an old woman, representing the end of human life. The whole work shows the audience a trilogy of human beings from birth to death. Most of the figures in the picture have bright skin. When appreciating this work, people can see many confusing images and feel a mysterious charm. The philosophy contained in this work triggers people to think deeply about life.

The painting is spread out in a tropical jungle. In the center of the painting, a middle-aged man is picking wild fruits, suggesting that Adam picks the fruit of wisdom. To his right, in the foreground, sat three women engaged in animated conversation, beside a sleeping child; In the distance, two robed mothers and daughters were walking away, holding each other's arms. On his left, in the foreground, were a little girl, a young woman, and an old woman, each with a different look, and perhaps representing three different stages of human life; In the distance was a mysterious and strange statue of a god flanked by two women, a large one and a small one, praying. Symbolic animals such as kittens, black goats, birds and lizards are painted on the ground. The whole painting is completely stable in blue and green, and the vivid orange and yellow nudes stand out in front of the dark landscape, adding to the mystery of the work.

The creation background

Gauguin's life was full of legends. He had been a sailor in his youth, and had travelled much of the world. Later, he engaged in securities trading and achieved great success. He married a wife and had children and lived a happy life. During this period, he began to engage in painting creation and collection activities. But he grew tired of the deceit and guile of the civilized world, and wanted to return to his primitive, natural childhood. To this end, he gave up everything he owned and went to Tahiti island in the southern Pacific twice for art creation and settlement. On the island, his life is poor and down and out, suffer from serious disease again, when hearing the sad news of the death of his favorite little daughter, his spirit completely collapsed, he took poison to commit suicide, want to end his life completely, but suicide attempt. In 1897, gauguin, with great sadness, completed "where did we come from? Who are we? Where are we going? .

Art appreciation

This painting is the painter's summary of life, and also represents his final thorough understanding. Banish their own gauguin, with the imprint of modern civilized people, can only in the spiritual level to pursue their own soul in the human paradise, but he has to bear more civilized people can not free from confusion, sadness, confusion and anxiety. He condenses these complex emotions into symbolic painting forms, condensing the primitive memory of human beings, the real present and the distant future into the picture. The thesis of "knowing oneself", a philosophical proposition of mankind, is answered symbolically through my own brush, and my soul is liberated and sublimated.

From the perspective of painting skills, the painting is more concise and solemn with the modeling technique of flat painting, and the abstract background foiled the figure image, which makes it rich in Oriental decorative and romantic color, and has the style of fresco.

In terms of colors, gao geng prefers to use red and orange, blue and green, purple and dark brown, which makes his paintings more colorful and dreamlike than his earlier works. Besides, his composition also becomes more direct and bold, reflecting the wild and unrestrained nature of the painter.

In the background are Tahiti's unique mountains, rainforests and oceans, crisscrossing the river of history like ancient veins. Gauguin's characters are all from the island's aborigines, and he was impressed by them as soon as he arrived. They were all naturally naked, men and women, and never shy or taboo, their skin glowing orange and yellow against the tropical sun. Through the mysterious eyes of the girls, one may feel, as gauguin does, the long-lost past. In order to make the meaning of each part bright and clear, gao simplified the form. He used simple outline and bright color blocks close to flat painting to create a mysterious and strange atmosphere.

Famous review

Luo shengjing, master's supervisor of school of art and design, guangdong university of technology, art appreciation of famous Chinese and foreign art works =ARTWORK: this painting is a pure illusion without modification, which combines gauguin's impression of Tahiti over the years with the illusion in the dream.

Art institute of Qingdao university of science and technology, professor, vice President of the Ma Yanyue "foreign art history" : the scenic part of the picture presents a stable blue and the green type veronese, front dash forward show the orange naked figures, landscape trees, flowers, fruits and other plants are a symbol of time Yi dies and "can't understand us and mystery. The decorative processing technique and color of the screen are completely unified to create a brilliant and deep atmosphere. This is a comprehensive reflection of the primitive and simple life impression and life philosophy that the painter has felt in Tahiti for many years.

history

The painting was given to George daniere DE monfred in Tahiti in 1898, and later changed hands several times. It was finally acquired by the harryman gallery in New York in 1936, and then transferred to the Boston museum of art for $80,000.

Important exhibitions

One of the highlights of the Paul gauguin retrospective, which opened at the Fondation Beyeler on Feb. 8, 2015, was "where did we come from? Who are we?

Author's brief introduction

Paul gauguin (1848 ~ 1903), an important innovator of French art after impressionism, was one of the three giants of post-impressionism together with van gogh and Cezanne. Born in Paris to a mother of Peruvian descent. He emphasizes bold lines and decorative colors, and his works pursue originality and strong symbolic significance. Representative works include the two Tahiti women, the woman with the fruit, our pilgrimage to Mary, the fragrant land, and where did we come from? Who are we? Where are we going? And so on.

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