荷兰尼德兰派大师博斯-人间乐园艺术作品赏析

 

《人间乐园》是早期尼德兰派大师耶罗尼米斯·博斯(约1495年-1505年)的三联画作品,又译为《夏娃的创造》、《娱乐之园》,自1939年起为马德里普拉多博物馆馆藏。它作于1490年至1510年间,博斯约为四十多或五十多岁之时,是他最负盛名、也是最竭尽心力的作品。它展现出博斯时值巅峰的画艺;画作涵义的复杂性以及生动的意象都是他其他作品所无法比拟的。

油橡木三联画是由一个正方形中间面板两侧由两个其他橡木矩形的翅膀,关闭了该中心的百叶窗。外翼,当折叠,显示grisaille的绘画的大地圣经叙事的创作过程中的三个场景内三联幅可能(但不一定)要读取的时间顺序从左至右。描绘神呈现夏娃亚当左侧面板,面板中央是一个广泛的社会参与的裸体人物,梦幻般的动物,超大水果和混合石头编队全景。右面板是一个hellscape,描绘诅咒的折磨。

艺术史学家和评论家经常解释画作为一个说教的生活的诱惑的危险警告。然而,在错综复杂其象征意义,尤其是中央控制面板的,已经导致广泛在过去几个世纪的学术解释。二十世纪的艺术史学家被划分是否三联中央面板是一个的道德警告或失去的天堂的全景。美国作家彼得·S.·贝格尔把它描述为“色情紊乱,把我们所有偷窥狂,一个地方弥漫着醉人的空气完全的自由。”在他的一生中,博斯画了三个大可以读取从左至右的三联画,其中每个面板整体的意思是必不可少的。这三部作品呈现独特而又联系的主题,解决历史和信仰。从这一时期的三联画一般拟按顺序读取,左侧和右侧面板往往描绘伊甸园和最后的审判,而主要拍摄对象包含的中心件。它不知道是否“花园”拟作为一个祭坛,但普遍的看法是,极端的题材内的中心和右面板使得它不可能,它的目的是在教堂或寺院运作,但改为由外行靠山委托。

博斯(约1450~1516),本名为吉罗姆·范·埃庚,生于安特卫普附近的荷兰小镇塞尔托亨博斯镇,因而取名博斯。自幼随祖父和父亲在故乡学画,擅长用细密笔法,描绘充满民间趣味的作品。曾为圣约翰教堂内玛丽亚兄弟会礼拜堂作画。博斯的作品大多未标明年份,难于明确其风格的形成。主要作品有三叶式祭坛画《干草车》、《世上欢乐之园》、《东尼的诱惑》和《最后的审判》等。一般被认为是超现实主义创始人。

 

--------Introduction in English-------

 

"Paradise on earth" is a tripteryx by the early netherlandic master eronymis bos (circa 1495-1505), which is translated as "creation of eve" and "garden of entertainment". It has been collected by the prado museum in Madrid since 1939. It was painted between 1490 and 1510, when bose was in his forties or fifties. It shows Bosch at his best; The complexity of meaning and vivid imagery of his paintings are unparalleled in other works.

The oil oak triptych is composed of a square middle panel flanked by two other rectangular oak wings that close the center's shutters. The outer wings, when folded, show grisaille's drawings of the ground bible narrative in the creation process of three scenes in which triplets may (but may not) be read in chronological order from left to right. Depicting god presents eve and Adam on the left panel, the panel center is a panorama of socially engaged nude figures, dreamlike animals, oversized fruit and mixed stone formations. The right panel is a hellscape, depicting the torture of a curse.

Art historians and critics often interpret painting as a didactic warning of the dangers of life's temptations. However, the intricacies of its symbolism, particularly the central control panel, have led to a wide range of academic interpretations over the past few centuries. Twentieth-century art historians are divided whether the triple central panel is a moral warning or a panorama of lost paradise. The American writer Peter s. beagle described it as "a sexual disorder that leaves us all voyeurs, one place full of intoxicating air, completely free." In his lifetime, bose painted three large triptych paintings that can be read from left to right, where the overall meaning of each panel is essential. These three works take on unique and connected themes that address history and faith. Triplets from this period are generally intended to be read in sequence, with the left and right panels often depicting Eden and the final judgment, while the main subject contains the centerpiece. It does not know whether the "garden" was intended as an altar, but the prevailing view is that the extreme subject matter within the center and right panel makes it impossible, and that its purpose is to operate in a church or monastery, but to be converted by laymen to commission.

Bose (about 1450 ~ 1516), his real name is guillaume van egen, was born in the Dutch town of certo hbos near Antwerp, so he was named bose. I studied painting in my hometown with my grandfather and father since I was young, and I am good at painting works full of folk interest with fine brushwork. He painted the chapel of the brotherhood of Mary in st. John's church. Since most of bose's works are not dated, it is difficult to clarify the formation of his style. His main works include three-leaf altar paintings haycart, garden of joy on earth, the lure of Tony and the last judgment. Is generally considered the founder of surrealism.

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