西班牙超现实主义画家萨尔瓦多·达利-记忆的永恒艺术作品欣赏

 

《记忆的永恒》是西班牙超现实主义画家萨尔瓦多·达利于1931年创作的布面油画,现藏于美国纽约现代美术馆。

《记忆的永恒》以袖珍面的技法,描绘了一个死寂般宁静的旷野。平静如镜的海、一马平川的沙滩、荒凉的海岸,以及一个不可能在这个环境中出现的方形台座、一块板、一棵树。面面突出表现了像软饼似的三块钟表和一块没有变形的红色钟表,上面爬满了黑色蚂蚁,方台上一块软表上还歇着一只苍蝇。

在一片死寂的海滩上,远方的大海、山峰都沐浴在太阳的余晖中。一个长着长长睫毛,紧闭眼睛,好像正在梦境中的像鱼又像马的“四不像”怪物躺在前面的海滩上。怪物的一旁有一个平台,平台上长着一棵枯死的树,还有一个爬满了苍蝇的金属盘子,好像正在被苍蝇啃噬掉。画中最令人匪夷所思的是三只钟表,它们都变成了柔软的、可以随意弯曲的东西,显得软塌塌的,如同面饼一样,或挂在枯树枝上,或搭在平台的边缘,或披在怪物的背上,好像这些钟表都不堪负荷,疲惫不堪地松垮了下来似的。在这里时间被强烈扭曲了,停止了,仿佛一切都被融化成了无意识的东西。

和所有的超现实主义画家一样。达利在创作这幅画时也受到了弗洛伊德“潜意识”学说的影响。根据达利的说法,这幅画中表现了一种“由弗洛伊德所揭示的个人梦境与幻觉”,自己梦中的每一个意念都是自己不能选择的,画家则负责尽可能精密地记下自己的下意识。为了寻找这种超现实的幻觉,达利专门前去精神病院了解病人的意识。在达利看来,精神病人的言论和行动往往是人的潜意识世界最真诚的反映。1931年8月达利完成了《记忆的永恒》。

艺术鉴赏

《记忆的永恒》中的物体都是柔软得失去功能的生物的象征,其中表达了某种痛苦和无奈的生命现实。达利的绘画作品中所蕴含的主题思想主要受到弗洛伊德的启发,它主要是在于表达一种梦幻匀般的世界。

这种对时间疯狂流逝的独特表现手法,暗示了个人情感在物质世界挤压之下迸发出的无法回避的力量。

在画面上,人们可以清晰地看到画家笔下的各种物体杂乱无章地散落着,没有固定的位置。尤其再配以那种无助风格的背景,整个绘画给人虚幻冷寂,怅然若失的感受。

达利的表现手法是一种不完整的美,充分表现了超现实主义绘画的魅力,令人神往,这与画家在绘研究上的努力不无关系。

背景中的海滩和台阶,都不在一个透视面上,每一件物体都有真实的原型,同时又被得互不相干、毫无逻辑地组织在一起,表现出极度的无理性和荒诞性。

画面整体色彩丰富,明暗分明,棕黄色背景下,蓝色天空与橙色柜子色彩对比强烈。

名家点评

国家二级美术师杨永胜《不可不知的世界名画》:在《记忆的永恒》中,达利以一种超越正常情理的方式,将普通物象加以并列、扭曲或者变形,同时又把它们描绘得精细入微,几乎达到毫发不差的逼真程度,从而创造出一种能够引起幻觉的真实感,令观众看到一种在现实生活中根本看不到的离奇而有趣的景象。

历史传承

《记忆的永恒》完成后,美国画商朱利安·列维看中并买下了这幅画,《记忆的永恒》后来被一再转手,最终被纽约现代艺术博物馆收藏。

重要展览

1931年6月15日,达利皮埃尔·科尔画廊举办了一场重要的展览,展出了十六幅画作,其中就包括《记忆的永恒》。

1932年达利的作品参加朱利安·列维画廊群展,作品就包括《记忆的永恒》。

作者简介

萨尔瓦多·达利(1904-1989),20世纪超现实主义大师,有画坛”怪才”、“20世纪艺术魔法大师”之称。出生于西班牙巴塞罗那的菲圭拉斯。曾就读于马德里美术学院,自小就表现出与众不同的诡异个性。他的作品千奇百怪,充斥着魔幻的色彩,梦呓般的形象。他也是一个褒贬不一、备受争议的人物,但是他的作品在不同领域、不同人群中拥有历久不衰的美誉,却是不争的事实。代表作有《记忆的永恒》、《欲望的顺应的诱惑》、《飞舞的蜜蜂所引起的梦》、《加拉丽像》、《圣安东尼》、《哥伦布之梦》等。

 

--------Introduction in English--------

 

 

 

"The eternity of memory" is a 1931 oil on canvas by Spanish surrealist painter Salvador Dali.

 

"The eternity of memory" depicts a deathly quiet wilderness with the technique of pocket noodles. A sea as calm as a mirror, a flat sand beach, a desolate coast, and a square platform, a board, a tree that is impossible in this environment. Surface outstanding performance like soft cake like three clocks and a red clock without deformation, covered with black ants above, square table on a soft table is also a fly.

 

On a dead beach, the distant sea and mountains were bathed in the last rays of the sun. A "sibuxiang" monster with long eyelashes and closed eyes, like a fish or a horse in a dream, was lying on the beach in front. Beside the monster was a platform with a dead tree growing on it, and a metal plate covered with flies, which seemed to be being eaten by flies. Draw the most oddly three clocks and watches, they all became soft, feel free to bend, appear soft collapse collapse, like bread, or hang on the dead, or at the edge of the platform, or in the monster's back, as if these clocks are not load, the exhausted loose easily. Here time is violently distorted and stops, as if everything has been melted into the unconscious.

 

Like all surrealist painters. Dali was also influenced by Freud's "unconscious" theory when he painted this painting. According to Dali, the painting represented a "personal dream and hallucination revealed by Freud," in which each thought in one's dream was an idea one could not choose, and the painter was responsible for recording one's subconscious as precisely as possible. In search of this surreal illusion, Dali went to a mental hospital to learn about the patient's consciousness. For Dali, the words and actions of the mentally ill are often the most sincere reflections of the unconscious world. In August 1931, Dali finished the eternity of memory.

 

Art appreciation

 

The objects in "the eternity of memory" are all symbols of soft and dysfunctional creatures, which express a certain painful and helpless life reality. The themes contained in Dali's paintings were mainly inspired by Freud and mainly aimed at expressing a dreamlike and uniform world.

 

This unique expression of the crazy passing of time implies the inevitable power of personal emotion under the pressure of the material world.

 

On the painting, one can clearly see the various objects in the painter's paintings scattered in disorder and without fixed positions. Especially with the background of that kind of helpless style, the whole painting gives people illusory and cold, a sense of loss.

 

Dali's technique of expression is a kind of incomplete beauty, which fully expresses the charm of surrealism painting and makes people fascinated, which is not unrelated to the painter's efforts in painting research.

 

The beach and the steps in the background are not in the same perspective, and each object has a true prototype, which is at the same time arranged in an unrelated and illogical way, showing the extreme irrationality and absurdity.

 

The overall color of the picture is rich with distinct light and shade. Under the background of brown and yellow, the color contrast between the blue sky and the orange cabinet is strong.

 

Famous review

 

National secondary artists yong-sheng Yang: it is necessary to know the world famous paintings of the "in" eternal memories ", Dali, in the form of a beyond normal sense juxtapose ordinary object, distortion or deformation, and painted them a fine at the same time, almost not miss the lifelike degree, thus creating a sense of reality can cause hallucinations, gives the audience to see a real life don't see strange and interesting.

 

history

 

After "the eternity of memory" was completed, the painting was spotted and bought by the American art dealer Julian levy, and "the eternity of memory" was sold again and again, eventually being collected by the museum of modern art in New York.

 

Important exhibitions

 

On June 15, 1931, Dali opened an important exhibition at the Pierre cole gallery, showing sixteen paintings, including "the eternity of memory."

 

Dali's works, including the eternity of memory, were exhibited in a group exhibition at the Julian levy gallery in 1932.

 

Author's brief introduction

 

Salvador Dali (1904-1989) was a master of surrealism in the 20th century. Born in Barcelona, Spain, figueras. Once studied in the Madrid academy of fine arts, since childhood has shown a different personality. His works are full of strange, magical colors and dream-like images. He is also a controversial and controversial figure. However, it is an indisputable fact that his works enjoy enduring reputation in different fields and different people. His representative works include the eternity of memory, the temptation to conform to desire, the dream caused by flying bees, galali's image, saint Antoine, Columbus's dream and so on.

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