巴洛克时期西班牙画家委拉斯凯兹-宫娥艺术作品赏析

 

《宫娥》 (Las Meninas,The Maids of Honor)是西班牙画家迭戈·罗德里格斯·德·席尔瓦·委拉斯凯兹1656年创作的一件油画作品,现收藏于西班牙普拉多美术馆。

该画是一幅有着风俗性特色的宫廷生活画,它描绘了宫廷里的日常生活。小公主玛格丽特被描绘得既庄严又具有掩盖不住的稚气,占据画面的中心的位置。一名宫女向她跪献水杯,画面左边是正在作画的画家本人。画家把自己安排在这一颇具戏剧性的情节中,使整幅画具有浓郁的生活气息和情调。

此画画面上,作者委拉斯凯兹站在最左面,手上拿着画笔,表情严肃,接下来从左至右分别为玛丽亚、小公主玛格利特、伊莎贝尔,玛丽亚伊莎贝尔二人是玛格丽塔公主的侍女。再向右是小矮子玛丽芭波拉和波图萨托,后者的脚正踏在一条闭目而憩的猎狗身上。在她们身后站着一男一女,女士为马塞拉,王后的典衣侍女。男的因处在阴影之中,身份难以判定。画面最后站在门口的那个人是委拉斯凯兹的亲戚涅托,正在注视着室内的情景。在画面中央位置的一面镜子里,映出了菲利普四世夫妇的影子,他们正摆出姿势让委拉斯凯兹描绘,他们既是画中的委拉斯凯兹笔下的模特,又是画中场面的旁观者。

创作背景

从1622年起,委拉斯凯兹就开始担任西班牙国王菲利普四世的宫廷画师,到了17世纪50年代后,他又当上了宫廷总管,从国王府邸的室内布置,到宫廷的庆典活动,不管大事小情都要他亲自过问,即使在这样忙碌的情况下,委拉斯开兹还是受国王菲利普四世委托,创作了《宫娥》。该画当年完成时题名为《国王之家》,后来才更名为《宫娥》。

艺术鉴赏

该画具有风俗性的特色,从生活的情趣出发来描写宫廷中的日常生活,同时,也揭示了这样一个事实,生活在宫廷里的人们并不快乐,他们受着枯燥礼仪的拘束,连高贵的小公主也是这样,她失去了儿童应有的天真,也必须保持仪态的摆出一种矜持的姿势。

画家打破宫廷肖像固有的原则,并没有像传统绘画那样把国王夫妇摆在画面的中心,而是把他们放在一个次要的位置,这样的构图是很大胆的,多少有一点随意性,他的这种做法是宫廷肖像画的一种改革,画面上的人物不再是呆板地排列在一起,而是尽量处在自然的状态之中,从门及侧面窗子射进来的自然光运用得很出色,光线均匀地散布在室内的每一个角落。

《宫娥》这幅作品的中心人物是西班牙国王菲利普四世的小女儿玛格利特公主,她处于画面的中心位置,摆出端仪的姿态。左边的一个宫女跪下来,向她奉上一些茶点,但小公主全然不理会,似乎比较任性。玛格利特右边的一个宫女正鞠躬行礼,仿佛是在祈求公主用膳,在画面的右下角,是两个供宫廷取乐的侏儒和一条打瞌睡的狗,而公主后面站着的两个年长的仆人可能是玛格利特日常生活的监管者,他们好像正在议论着什么又被突然打断。

整个画面最为有趣的是委拉斯凯兹将自己安排在了画面之中,他手持调色板站在巨大的画板后,无比神奇,俨然就是他为自己画的一个肖像。委拉斯凯兹刻意突出了自己胸前佩戴的爵士勋章,这是他梦寐以求的,以显示出自己的尊贵。大厅的出口站着守卫的士兵,他并没有挺直自己的身躯,他的一只脚站在了更低的一层台阶上。

透过画面墙壁上的镜子显现出来的人物,正是国王菲利普四世和王后玛丽安娜,他们吸引了现场所有的眼神。但是,是委拉斯凯兹在给国王夫妇绘制肖像,由于玛格利特公主的突然出现为画家的创作带来了麻烦呢,还是画家为玛格利特绘像,由于小公主的任性难以配合,而此时国王和王后突然到来,使整个画面的故事发生了戏剧性的变化,在尊贵的玛格利特小公主旁每个人物都流露出慌张的神情,只有画家是那么镇定自若。而此时,从侧窗打入室内的光完全把画面定格在了这一瞬间,这一瞬间犹如照相机迅速按下的快门,非常真实。

这幅高度达3米的作品,画面的每个物体与实物同等大小,这些正显示出了委拉斯凯兹高超的技法。画家将每件物体都刻画得相当到位,毫不敷衍。质感、形体、空间、明暗的处理更是让人拍案叫绝,画家向人们展示了一个“真实”的时间片段的塑像。

历史传承

这幅作品完成之后就一直放在菲利普四世的书房,并且不允许任何人偷看。在委拉斯凯兹1660年去世后,菲利普四世立刻让人重新修复了这幅作品,并且在委拉斯凯兹的胸前画上了一个红色的神圣十字架。

名家点评

云南财经大学传媒学院汉语言系主任孙婷婷:委拉斯凯兹的《宫娥》打破了相似性链条,复原了空间的多重性,从而完成了对传统绘画空间的否定

后世影响

在1957年8月17日至12月30日之间,毕加索依据委拉斯开兹的《宫娥》蓝本,绘制了大量的变体画,数量多达45幅,形成了一个作品系列。后来,他将这些作品捐赠给了巴塞罗毕加索美术馆。

西班牙超现实主义画家达利也画过《宫娥》。2014年10月18日,奥地利邮政发行一枚《大师经典》系列邮票,将西班牙画家迭戈·罗德里格斯·德·席尔瓦·委拉斯凯兹的《宫娥》中的玛格利特公主搬上邮票。

作者简介

迭戈·罗德里格斯·德·席尔瓦·委拉斯凯兹(Velasquez,1599—1660),十七世纪巴洛克时期西班牙画家。委拉斯凯兹生于西班牙塞维里亚,父亲是当地的一个下等贵族,与许多大师级的画家一样,迪埃戈从小喜欢绘画,并显示出极高的创作天分。1628年29岁的委拉斯凯兹踏上了艺术之都的土地,开始了在意大利的两年进修。他精研了文艺复兴时期历代大师的杰出艺术成就,特别是对威尼斯画派对色彩的运用一道颇有心得。回国后,人们发现他所画的肖像造型更为幽雅精确,难能可贵的是有一种隐于纸内的摄人力量,高度的写实功力与对色彩的巧妙把握使他的肖像作品充满了神奇的魅力。菲里普四世以他私藏的这位丹青圣手为荣,把他所做的肖像当作外交上的重要礼物,甚至把画家借给欧洲各王室显贵以显示政治上的宽宏。委拉斯凯兹不仅是宫廷的首席画家,还是皇宫的艺术总监。他的代表作品有:《卖水人》、《煎鸡蛋的老妇人》、《教皇英诺森十世肖像》、《火神的锻铁场》等。

 

--------Introduction in English--------

 

Las Meninas, The Maids of Honor, is a 1656 painting by The Spanish painter diego rodriguez DE silva velazquez, now in The prado gallery.

The painting is a painting of the life of the court with a vulgar characteristic, which depicts the daily life in the court. The little princess, Margaret, is depicted with a mixture of dignity and undisguised childishness, occupying the center of the picture. A palace maid kneels down to offer her a cup of water. The painter arranged himself in this dramatic plot, so that the whole painting has a strong flavor of life and emotional appeal.

The painting shows velazquez standing on the far left with a paintbrush in his hand and a serious expression, followed by maria, princess Margaret and Isabel, who are princess margarita's handmaid-in-waiting, from left to right. To the right were little mariba bora and botusato, whose feet were treading on a sleeping hound. Behind them stood a man and a woman, the lady marcela, the queen's dress-girl. The man's status is difficult to determine because he is in the shadow. The last man standing in the doorway, pena nieto, velazquez's relative, is watching the scene inside. In a mirror in the middle of the frame, Philip iv and his wife are posing for velazquez to portray, both as models and spectators in the middle.

The creation background

Since 1622, appoint lars katz began as a court painter of Spanish king Philip iv, in the 1650 s, when the main palace again, he from the king's residence indoor decorate, the palace's celebrations, no matter big and small are he checked, even in such a busy, diego velazquez or entrusted by the king Philip iv, created "GongE". The painting was titled "the king's house" when it was finished, and was later renamed "las meninas."

Art appreciation

It has FengSuXing characteristics, starting from the appeal of the life to describe daily life in palace, at the same time, also reveals the fact that the people who live in the palace is not happy, they restrict the boring ways, to the noble young princess, she had lost her child should be naive, also must keep posing a reserved manner.

Painters broke royal portrait inherent principles, there is no king couples like traditional painting in the center of the picture, but put them in a secondary position, the composition is very bold, how much a bit arbitrary, his portraits in the palace of this kind of practice is a kind of reform, the character screen is no longer mechanically arranged together, but as far as possible in the state of nature, the natural light that shoots from the door and side window using very well, the light evenly scattered in every corner of the interior.

In las meninas, the central figure is princess Margaret, the youngest daughter of king Philip iv of Spain. On the left, a palace maid knelt down and offered her some tea. Margaret to the right of a palace maid is bow to bow, asing if is begging for princess mess, in the right bottom corner of the picture is two dwarf for court for fun and a snoozing dog, and the princess stood behind the two older servant may be Margaret regulators of daily life, as if they are talking about what was suddenly interrupted.

The most interesting thing about the whole scene is that velazquez places himself in the middle of it, standing behind a huge drawing board with a palette in his hand, as if he were a portrait of himself. Velazquez deliberately highlighted the knighthood on his chest, a coveted badge of honor. At the entrance to the hall stood the guard, who did not straighten himself, but stood with one foot on one of the lower steps.

It was king Philip iv and queen mariana who caught all the eye through a mirror on the wall. , however, is in to the king the lars katz couple drawing portraits, due to the sudden appearance of princess Margaret brought trouble, for the creation of the painter or artist as the draw for Margaret, as the little princess willfulness is difficult to cooperate, while the king and queen suddenly come, make dramatic changes have taken place in the story of the whole picture, next to the noble young princess Margaret every character reveals an air of panic, only the painter is so calm. At this time, the light from the side window into the room completely freezes the picture in this moment, this moment is like the camera quickly pressed the shutter, very real.

The work, which is three metres high and each object is the same size as the real thing, shows velazquez's skill. The artist paints each object perfectly and without perfunctory effort. The treatment of texture, form, space and light and shade is amazing. The painter shows people a "real" time segment of the statue.

history

The work remained in Philip iv's study after it was finished, and no one was allowed to look at it. Immediately after velazquez's death in 1660, Philip iv had the work restored and painted a red holy cross on velazquez's chest.

Famous review

Sun tingting, dean of the Chinese language department at the school of media, yunnan university of finance and economics: las meninas by velazquez breaks the similarity chain and restores the multiplicity of space, thus completing the negation of traditional painting space

Affect future generations

Between August 17, 1957 solstice December 30, Picasso based on velazquez "las meninas", painted a large number of variant paintings, the number of up to 45, formed a work series. He later donated the works to the Picasso museum in Barcelona.

Spanish surrealist painter Salvador Dali also painted las meninas. On October 18, 2014, Austria post issued a "master classic" stamp series, featuring princess Margaret in "las meninas" by Spanish painter diego rodriguez DE silva velazquez.

Author's brief introduction

Diego rodriguez DE silva Velasquez (1599-1660) was a Spanish painter of the baroque period in the 17th century. Velazquez was born in seville, Spain, the son of a local aristocrat. Like many masters, he loved to paint and showed great creative talent. In 1628, at the age of 29, velazquez set foot in the art capital and began his two-year study in Italy. He studied the outstanding artistic achievements of the Renaissance masters, especially the Venetian school's use of color. After returning to China, people found that his portraits are more elegant and accurate. What is valuable is that he has a kind of absorbing power hidden in the paper. His portrait works are full of magical charm due to his high realistic ability and clever grasp of color. Proud of his private possession, Philip iv made his portraits a major diplomatic gift and even lent them to European royal dignitaries to show political magnanimity. Velazquez was not only the court's chief painter, but also its artistic director. His representative works include: "the man selling water", "the old lady frying eggs", "the portrait of Pope innocent x", "the forge of vulcan" and so on.

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