法国浪漫主义画家欧仁·德拉克罗瓦-自由引导人民艺术作品欣赏

 

《自由引导人民》(法语:La Liberté guidant le peuple)是法国画家欧仁·德拉克罗瓦为纪念1830年法国七月革命而创作的一幅油画。该画作在1831年的巴黎沙龙会展(Salon de Paris)上第一次正式对外进行展览,于1874年被卢浮宫博物馆收藏。画面展示的夺取七月革命胜利关键时刻的巷战场面,以浪漫主义的手法巧妙地将写意和写实结合起来,运用丰富而炽烈的色彩和明暗对比,充满着动势的构图,奔放的笔触,紧凑的结构,表现了革命者高涨的热情,歌颂了以工人、小资产阶级和知识分子为参加主体的七月革命,该作品成为代表法兰西民族精神的标志。

画面的主体为一个戴着弗里吉亚无边便帽(Phrygian cap)的年轻女性,她的右手高高举起,手中握着的是一面红色、白色、蓝色三色相间的三色旗。她即是克拉拉·莱辛,又象征着自由女神,穿着一件黄色的连衣裙,腰部系着一条腰带,连衣裙滑到了乳房的下边,袒露出双乳。在她的左手里拿着的是一把带刺刀步兵枪(1816式)。两名巴黎街头顽童自发的参加了战斗:左边的顽童手中紧握着圆石,戴着一顶轻便的步兵帽;年轻女性右边的顽童戴着一顶法国学生常戴的黑色天鹅绒贝雷帽,在他的肩膀上挂着一个大尺寸的弹药盒,他的右脚向前,一只手举在空中挥舞着骑兵手枪,急速向前奔跑,表现了为了自由全民参战的的情景,他象征少年英雄阿莱尔。

左翼人物中最左侧的战士戴着一顶配有白色勋章和红色自由丝带的贝雷帽,手中握着一把步兵配剑(1816式)或者火石打火机,他穿着工厂工人的工作裙和水手裤,腰间用一条绍莱(Cholet)手帕固定着手枪。在他的傍边是一位戴着大礼帽的资产阶级或者时尚的都市人,他穿着宽松的裤子和工匠的红色法兰绒带,手中握着一把双管猎枪。

创作背景

《自由引导人民》取材于1830年七月革命事件,该画又名“1830年7月27日”,是纪念1830年7月27日巴黎市民为推翻波旁王朝的一次起义。 

1815年拿破仑下台后,逃亡国外的路易十八重返法国当国王,这就是“波旁王朝”第二次复辟,封建势力重新猖獗。1830年7月,路易十八的继承人查理十世企图进一步增强皇权,限制人民的选举权和出版自由并宣布解散议会。1830年7月26日,巴黎市民闻讯纷纷起义。他们拿起武器,走向街垒,为推翻这个复辟的波旁王朝浴血奋战,27至29日为推翻波旁王朝,与保皇党展开了战斗,最后占领了王宫,查理十世逃亡英国。在历史上称为“光荣的三天”。

在这次战斗中,一位名叫克拉拉·莱辛的姑娘首先在街垒上举起了象征法兰西共和制的三色旗;少年阿莱尔把这面旗帜插到巴黎圣母院旁的一座桥头时,中弹倒下。画家德拉克洛瓦目击了这一悲壮激烈景象,又义愤填膺,决心为之画一幅画作为永久的纪念。

艺术鉴赏

《自由引导人民》是画家在上百幅“七月革命”街战的草图的基础上定稿的画面,全画采取顶天立地的构图形式。倒在地上的尸体、战斗的勇士以及高举法兰西旗帜的女子,构成一个稳定又蕴藏动势的三角形。象征自由、平等、博爱的三色旗位于等腰三角形的顶点,自由女神的人群的头部的横竖黄金分割线的位置,场面宏伟,构图组织井然有序。他们身后都是一往无前的战士,远处的建筑是巴黎市中心的标志——巴黎圣母院。以一个象征自由的女神形象为主体,德拉克洛瓦的浪漫气质造就了这样一位袒胸露怀的女子形象,招呼着后方的人民,将神话中的自由女神与浴血奋战的人民安排到一起,她长着希腊雕塑般的轮廓,穿着朴素古典的衣着,与周围身穿现代服装的男士们相比,她更像一个抽象的人,代表着最高的精神与意义。紧跟她前后左右的是工人、市民、孩子、学生等。她的右方是一个持着双枪的少年,急速向前奔跑,表现了为了自由全民参战的的情景,他象征少年英雄阿莱尔。一名受了重伤的青年工人正抬头仰望自由女神的三色旗,前景右侧有两名政府军的士兵倒毙在地上,左侧躺着一位为自由而献身的起义者。他们手持武器,踏着血迹和尸体奋勇前进。她的身后有两个工人挥舞着尖刀,表情刚毅,显示出愤怒的神色。人群上方则是阴霾的天空。画家将他本人也画到作品里面,头戴高礼帽,身穿燕尾服,手中紧握长枪,大声疾呼,号召人民以伟大的过去为榜样,起来进行斗争,进行革命。

德拉克洛瓦在创作该幅油画时,用法兰西共和国国旗的红、白、蓝三色作为这幅画的主色, [1]  画面中描绘的自由女神高举三色旗,左手拿枪,赤着脚,正领导着人民迎风前进,明确的主题表现出女性坚强、 勇敢的一面。在弥漫着浓浓硝烟的背景中,低纯度的人物刻画突出了两面中心的女神形象,红色的旗帜更是显得格外醒目,强烈的色彩对比使画面热情奔放,给人十足的力量感。

该画取材于真实的历史事件,表现如火如荼的革命场景,包括其中有原型的历史人物开象以及作者自身的参与,都表现了这幅画高度的现实意义。但这幅画被称作德拉克洛瓦浪漫主义风格的代表作,则是因为这幅画中的场景是颇为集中的浪漫主义场景,其中的自由女神更是具备“半人半神气质的一个理想化人物”。她长着古希腊难塑般的轮廓,露上身,穿着朴索古典的衣着,走在革命队伍的前面,右手高举:三色旗。脸朝向人群,似在号召着人们革命到底。这样就能获得自由。与周围身穿现代服装的男士们相比,她更像一个抽象的人,代表着最高的精神与意义。她健康,有力,坚决,美丽朴素,领导着工人、知识分子的革命队伍奋勇前进,寄托了国家的革命感情和对英雄气概的向往。恰如其分地表现了现代社会最核心的政治主题:自由与民主。

名家点评

中国美术家协会理事陈绘兵:《自由引导人民》 是一幅具有划时代意义的浪漫主义杰作,成为法国“七月革命”有力的号角和纪念法国资产阶级革命的史诗性作品。画中的自由女神已成为法国的象征。

后世影响

1831年5月1日,在巴黎展出时,引起轰动。德国诗人海涅为此画写了赞美诗。

历史传承

1831年,这幅画被法国政府收购,在卢森堡宫展出了数月,后因时局变化,还给了画家本人。

1848年法国爆发了二月革命,法国人民要求把此画重新在卢森堡宫展览。同年6月,巴黎工人起义,此画又被政府摘下,理由是具有煽动性。直到1874年才被送入卢浮宫。1874年后一直收藏于卢浮宫。

重要展览

《自由引导人民》从1874年被卢浮宫收藏开始,只“出宫”展览过2次。

1999年,《自由引导人民》出借到日本展出。  

2013年2月,卢浮宫在法国北部地区建造了朗斯分馆(Louvre Lens),为了庆祝朗斯分馆的开馆,《自由引导人民》被移送到朗斯分馆展览。但却在这次展览的过程中,遭一名患有精神障碍的女游客用黑色光标笔涂鸦破坏。庆幸的是,这次涂画对整幅作品没有造成重大损伤。

作者简介

欧仁·德拉克罗瓦(1798—1863)是法国浪漫主义画派的领军人物,他的画作对后世的画家有深远的影响。德拉克罗瓦18岁开始进入美术学院学习,师从新古典主义画家大卫的弟子盖兰。德拉克罗瓦尤其喜欢到卢浮宫临摹大师们的作品,因此在他很年轻的时候,绘画技法就很成熟了,《自由引导人民》《希阿岛的屠杀》《十字军进入君士坦丁堡》都是其代表作。

 

--------Introduction in English--------

 

La Liberte guidant le peuple (French: La Liberte guidant le peuple) is an oil painting created by the French painter Eugene delacroix to commemorate the French revolution of July 1830. The painting was first exhibited at the Salon DE Paris in 1831 and was in the collection of the Louvre museum in 1874. Picture of the July revolution victory is a crucial moment street scene, in the romantic technique cleverly combined freehand brushwork and realistic, and that the rich color and contrast, full of electromotive force composition, bold and unrestrained brush strokes, compact structure, represents the enthusiasm of the revolutionary upsurge, praising for workers, the petty bourgeoisie and intellectuals to participate in the main body of the revolution of July, the work become a symbol of the French national spirit.

The main body of the painting is a young woman wearing a Phrygian cap, with her right hand raised high, holding a tricolor flag in red, white and blue. Clara lessing, also known as the statue of liberty, wore a yellow dress with a belt around her waist that slid below her breasts, revealing her breasts. In her left hand is an infantry rifle with a bayonet (type 1816). Two Paris street urchin joined the fight spontaneously: the one on the left, clutching boulders and wearing a light infantry cap; Young women to the right of the child wearing a French students often wear black velvet berets, hanging on his shoulder a large size of the ammunition boxes, his right foot forward, one hand waving in the air cavalry pistol, rapid running forward, shows the scenario for freedom of the civil war, he symbolizes the young hero Lyle.

The leftwing warrior wears a beret with a white medal and a red liberty ribbon, an infantry sword (type 1816) or a flint lighter, a factory worker's workdress and sailor pants, and a Cholet handkerchief around his waist to hold a pistol. Next to him was a bourgeois or fashionable urbanite in a top hat, with baggy trousers and a red flannel band of a craftsman, and a double-barreled shotgun in his hand.

The creation background

"Freedom leads the people" is based on the revolutionary events of July 1830. The painting is also known as "July 27, 1830", which commemorates the uprising of the citizens of Paris on July 27, 1830 to overthrow the bourbon dynasty.

After the fall of napoleon in 1815, Louis xviii, who fled abroad, returned to France as king, which was the second restoration of the "bourbon dynasty", and the feudal forces were rampant again. In July 1830, Charles x, the successor to Louis xviii, attempted to further strengthen the royal power, restricting the voting rights of the people and the freedom of the press, and announced the dissolution of parliament. On July 26, 1830, the citizens of Paris heard about the uprising. They took up arms, they went to the barricades, they fought to overthrow the restored bourbons, they fought to overthrow the bourbons on the 27th to the 29th, they fought with royalists, they took the palace, and Charles x fled to England. Known in history as "three glorious days".

In this battle a girl named Clara lessing was the first to raise on the barricade the tricolour, the symbol of the French republic; The teenager, alaire, was shot when he planted the flag on a bridge near Notre Dame cathedral. The painter delacroix witnessed this tragic and violent scene, but also filled with righteous indignation, determined to paint a painting as a permanent memorial.

Art appreciation

"Freedom leads the people" is a picture finalized by the painter based on hundreds of sketches of the "July revolution" street battle. The fallen body, the fighting warrior, and the woman holding up the flag of France form a stable and dynamic triangle. The three-color flag symbolizing freedom, equality and fraternity is located at the apex of isosceles triangle, and the vertical and horizontal position of the golden dividing line of the head of the goddess of liberty. The scene is magnificent and the composition is well-organized. Behind them are the marching soldiers, and in the distance is Notre Dame cathedral, the symbol of the heart of Paris. As a symbol of the free goddess image as the main body, the romantic temperament of delacroix bare their breasts has created such a woman image, say hello to the rear of the people, the myth of the statue of liberty to the people fought to arrange together, she has a Greek sculptural silhouette, wore a simple classic clothing, compared with in modern clothing of men around, she is more like an abstract person, representing the highest spirit and meaning. Close behind her are workers, citizens, children, students and so on. To her right is a young man with a double gun, running forward rapidly, showing the battle for the freedom of all people. He symbolizes the young hero alaire. A badly wounded young worker is looking up at liberty's tricolor flag. To the right of the foreground, two government soldiers lie dead on the ground. Armed, they marched through blood and corpses. Behind her, two workers brandished sharp knives with steely, angry expressions. Above the crowd was a cloudy sky. The painter painted himself into the painting, wearing a top hat and a tuxedo, clutching a spear in his hand, calling on the people to follow the example of the great past to rise up for struggle and revolution.

Delacrova used the red, white and blue colors of the national flag of the French republic as the main colors in this painting. [1] in the painting, the statue of liberty holding the tricolor flag high, holding a gun in her left hand and barefoot, is leading the people to march against the wind. The clear theme shows the strong and brave side of women. In the background filled with thick smoke, the low-purity character portrayal highlights the goddess image in the two centers, and the red flag is particularly striking. The strong color contrast makes the picture enthusiastic and unrestrained, giving a full sense of power.

The painting is based on real historical events, showing the revolutionary scenes in full swing, including the archetypal historical figures and the author's own participation, which all show the realistic significance of the painting. But the painting is called a masterpiece of delacroix's romantic style, because the scene is a concentrated romantic one, in which the statue of liberty is "an idealized figure of half man and half air". She has an ancient Greek figure, shirtless, wearing plain classical clothing, walking in front of the revolutionary team, the right hand held high: tricolor flag. Face to the crowd, as if calling on people to revolution to the end. So you can be free. Compared with the men around her wearing modern clothes, she is more like an abstract person, representing the highest spirit and significance. Healthy, strong, determined, beautiful and simple, she led the revolutionary team of workers and intellectuals to march forward courageously, embodying the revolutionary feelings of the country and the yearning for heroism. Aptly expresses the core political theme of modern society: freedom and democracy.

Famous review

Chen huibing, director of the Chinese artists association: "freedom guides the people" is a romantic masterpiece with epoch-making significance, which becomes a powerful horn of the "July revolution" in France and an epic work commemorating the French bourgeois revolution. The statue of liberty has become the symbol of France.

Afect future generations

When it was exhibited in Paris on May 1, 1831, it caused a sensation. The German poet Heine wrote a hymn to this painting.

history

In 1831, the painting was acquired by the French government and exhibited at the Luxembourg palace for several months.

In 1848, when the February revolution broke out in France, the French people demanded that the painting be re-exhibited in the Luxembourg palace. In June of that year, during the Paris workers' uprising, the painting was taken down by the government as being inflammatory. It was not admitted to the Louvre until 1874. It has been in the Louvre since 1874.

Important exhibitions

"Freedom leads the people" has been exhibited only twice since it was collected by the Louvre in 1874.

In 1999, freedom guides the people was loaned to Japan for exhibition.

The Louvre opened a branch in northern France in February 2013, and "freedom guides the people" was moved to the Louvre to celebrate the opening. But in the course of this exhibition, it was vandalized by a female visitor with a mental disorder who used a black cursor pen. Fortunately, the painting did not cause significant damage to the whole work.

Author's brief introduction

Eugene delacroix (1798-1863) was a leading figure of the French romantic painting school. His paintings had a profound influence on later painters. Delacroix began studying at the academy of fine arts at the age of 18 under galen, a disciple of the neoclassical painter David. Delacroix especially liked to go to the Louvre to copy the works of the great masters, so his painting skills were very mature when he was very young, such as "freedom leads the people", "the massacre of Thea" and "the crusaders enter Constantinople".

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