法国印象派画家克劳德·莫奈-「日出·印象」艺术作品欣赏

 

《日出·印象》(英语:Impression Sunrise;法语:Impression,Soleil levant)是法国印象派画家克劳德·莫奈于1872年在勒阿弗尔港口创作的一幅油画。该画描绘了晨雾笼罩中的日出港口景象,用美妙的光的变幻与运动展现了迷人景色,以及画家用轻快跳跃的笔触刻画了光在宽阔的海面上反射与颤动的生动景象。

该幅作品突破了传统题材和构图的限制,完全以视觉经验的感知为出发点,侧重表现光线氛围中变幻无穷的外观,是莫奈画作中最典型的一幅,也是日后最具声誉的经典画作,是印象画派的开山之作。

画面描绘的是透过薄雾观望勒阿佛尔港口日出时的景象,经过晨雾的折射,一抹圆形的红日在昏暗的景象中极其突出,在水面上形成随波颤抖的暖光,急促的条形笔触与光线投影相互呼应,给人以深刻印象。莫奈借用长短不一的笔触描绘出水面上泛起的波光,三只小船在朦胧的雾气中若隐若现,远处依稀可见的工厂烟囱、吊车等物象琵是利用隐约的笔触表现,将日出时刻法国海港域市的神奇呈现在人们面前。

创作背景

1872年,莫奈访问了他的故乡位于法国西北部的勒阿弗尔,并创作了一系列描绘勒阿弗尔港的作品,《日出·印象》就是在这个背景下创作的。根据有关研究,该画创作的具体时间在1872年11月13日早上7点35分的阿佛尔港口。

艺术鉴赏

《日出·印象》描绘的是在晨雾笼罩中日出时港口景象。莫奈在这幅画中不再以主流的学院派艺术所推崇的明确而又清晰的轮廓,以及固定程式化的色彩为主题,不关心画面的主题和社会意义,甚至不注意画面的构图完整和形体准确,只注重画面的色彩关系和外光影响,通过水来体现光色的微妙变幻。

该画主要由淡紫、微红、蓝灰和橙黄等色调组成,一轮生机勃勃的红日拖着海水中一缕橙黄色的波光,冉冉升起。海水、天空、景物在轻松的笔调中,交错渗透,浑然一体。近海中的三只小船,在薄雾中渐渐变得模糊不清,远处的建筑、港口、吊车、船舶、桅杆等也都在晨曦中朦胧隐现。 在这幅画中,明暗不是主角,主角是色彩。在日光照下,大自然的无穷景象在印象派画中变幻不定。

该画不讲究细腻的线条,通过“零乱”的笔触来展示雾气交融的景象。是对于一贯正统的沙龙学院派艺术家来说乃是艺术的叛逆。该画完全是一种瞬间的视觉感受和活泼生动的作画情绪使然,和官方学院派艺术推崇的那种谨慎而明确的轮廓,呆板而僵化的色调的美学要求完全相反。具有叛逆性,引起了官方的反对。

该画在构图上采用井字形构图,画面中徐徐升起的太阳和海上漂泊的船只都处于画面的兴趣点上,这样构图可以让观者的视线集中在画面主体上。火红的太阳位于井字形的右上角,给人以上升之感。

后世影响

该画是印象主义绘画的开山之作,它标志着印象派绘画的产生。 印象派后来成为一个风靡全球, 影响深远的世界性画派。它强调自然界的光和色,把光与色的变化作为绘画的主流。莫奈被认为是第一个采用外光技法进行绘画的印象派大师。

《日出·印象》在艺术观点上,反对当时占正统地位的古典学院派,反对日益落入俗套、矫揉造作的浪漫主义绘画。 作为一种美术思潮,印象主义绘画在世界美术史上具有重要地位,它推动了以后美术技法的革新与观念的转变,对欧美、日本乃至中国的画家产生过重要影响。

《日出·印象》是印象派的代表作。印象派的诞生是美术史上的一次重大革命,是色彩学发展的一个里程碑,将光与色的科学现念引入到绘画之中,革新了传统的固有色观念,创了以光源色和环境色为核心的现代写生色彩学。它科学地分析和表现了光色之间的关系,简洁,洗练、灵动。对现代的绘画色彩和设计色彩有着非常重要的研究与借鉴意义。

历史传承

1985年,该画在马蒙坦莫奈美术馆被盗窃。

1990年12月6日,该画被法国被盗艺术品侦缉处在科西嘉岛一座别墅中查获并送回马蒙坦莫奈美术馆。

重要展览

1874年4月,在莫奈和德加的倡议和奔走下,“独立派”画家们在巴黎摄影家纳达尔的工作室举办了第一次自己的展览会。以莫奈雷诺阿西斯莱、毕沙罗、德加为中心,包括布丹塞尚在内的30个画家的165件作品品参加了展出。《日出·印象》也在这次展览中首次展出。

作者简介

克劳德·莫奈(1840~1926),法国印象派代表画家,出生于巴黎。早年曾分别跟随画家布丹格莱尔学习绘画,后来与雷诺阿西斯莱、巴齐耶等交往密切,并经常一起到巴比松的枫丹白露森林写生,1872年创作《日出·印象》,采用原色主义、色调分割等方法,表现出强烈的光色变化,标志着印象主义的产生。晚年创作了大量和睡莲有关的作品。他的代表作还有《奠奈在船上作画》、《河畔》、《垂柳》、《睡莲》等。

 

--------Introduction in English--------

 

Impression Sunrise (English: Impression Sunrise; Impression,Soleil levant is an 1872 painting by the French impressionist painter Claude monet in the port of le havre. The painting depicts the sunrise harbor in the morning mist, showing the charming scenery with the wonderful changes and movements of light, and the vivid scene of light reflecting and trembling on the wide sea with the artist's brisk strokes.

Breaking through the limitations of traditional subject matter and composition, this work takes the perception of visual experience as the starting point and focuses on the infinite changing appearance in the light atmosphere. It is the most typical monet painting and the most famous classic painting in the future. It is the first work of impression painting school.

The picture depicts the sunrise view of le havre port through the mist. Through the refraction of the morning mist, a round red sun stands out from the dim scene and forms a warm light that tremors with waves on the water surface. The rapid brush strokes and light projection echo each other impressively. Monet used different strokes to depict the waves of light on the surface of the water. Three small boats were partly hidden in the hazy fog. The factory chimney, crane and other objects like pipit could be seen dimly in the distance.

The creation background

In 1872, monet visited his hometown of le havre in northwest France and created a series of works depicting le havre port. According to research, the painting was painted at 7:35 a.m. on November 13, 1872, at the port of havre.

Art appreciation

"Impression at sunrise" depicts the port at sunrise in the morning mist. Monet in the painting is no longer with the mainstream academic art as clear and clear outline, and the color of fixed stylized as the theme, don't care about the theme of the picture and social significance, and even do not pay attention to the picture composition and form complete accurate, only pay attention to the color relations of images and light effects, through the water to reflect the subtle changes of the light color.

The painting is mainly composed of lilac, reddish, blue-gray and orange-yellow colors, and a vibrant red sun is slowly rising, dragging a ray of orange-yellow light from the sea. Sea water, sky, scenery in a relaxed tone, interlacing penetration, one integrated mass. Three small boats in the offshore, gradually become blurred in the mist, the distant buildings, ports, cranes, ships, masts, and so on are also dimly visible in the morning light. In this painting, light and shade are not the main characters, the main characters are colors. In the light of the sun, the infinite landscape of nature changes in impressionist paintings.

The painting does not pay attention to fine lines, through the "messy" brushwork to show the scene of mist blending. It was a rebellion against the art of the traditionally orthodox salonists. The painting is an instant visual experience and a lively mood, as opposed to the careful and definite outline, rigid and rigid tone aesthetic favored by official academic art. It was rebellious and aroused official opposition.

The composition of this painting adopts the pattern of well, in which the rising sun and drifting ships on the sea are all at the interest point of the picture, so that the audience can focus on the main body of the picture. The red sun is on the upper right corner of the zigzag, giving the impression of rising.

Affect future generations

The painting is the first work of impressionism painting, which marks the emergence of impressionism painting. Impressionism later became a popular and far-reaching worldwide school of painting. It emphasizes the light and color in nature and takes the change of light and color as the mainstream of painting. Monet is considered to be the first impressionist to paint using external light.

"Impression of sunrise" in the artistic point of view, against the orthodox position of the classical academy, against the increasingly falling into the stereotypes, artificial romantic painting. As an art trend, impressionism painting plays an important role in the history of world art, which promotes the innovation of art techniques and the transformation of concepts, and has exerted an important influence on European, American, Japanese and even Chinese painters.

Sunrise · impression is a representative work of impressionism. The birth of impressionism is a major revolution in the history of art and a milestone in the development of chromatics. It introduces the scientific concept of light and color into painting, innovates the traditional concept of inherent color, and creates the modern chromatics of sketching with light source color and environment color as the core. It scientifically analyzed and expressed the relationship between light and color, concise, clean and clever. It has very important research and reference significance to modern painting color and design color.

history

In 1985, the painting was stolen from the mamun tanmonet gallery.

On December 6, 1990, the painting was seized from a villa on the island of Corsica and returned to the mamontane monet.

Important exhibitions

In April 1874, at the initiative and campaign of monet and degas, the "independents" held their first exhibition in the studio of the Paris photographer nadal. With monet, renoir, sisley, pissarro and degas as the center, 165 works by 30 artists, including boudin and Cezanne, participated in the exhibition. Sunrise · impression is also shown for the first time in this exhibition.

Author's brief introduction

Claude monet (1840 ~ 1926), French impressionist painter, was born in Paris. Early had followed the painter cloth Dan and Lyle study painting, later and renoir, west weasley, ba JiYe contact closely, and often to barbizon Fontainebleau forest together sketch, creation "impression, sunrise" in 1872, the methods of primary colors, color segmentation, shows strong light color changes, marked the impressionism. In his later years, he created a large number of works related to water lilies. His masterpieces include painting on a boat by dien nai, riverside, weeping willows and water lilies.

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