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卫恒

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四体书势

  恆字巨山,少辟司空齐王府,转太子舍人、尚书郎、秘书丞、太子庶子、黄门 郎。

  恆善草隶书,为《四体书势》曰:

  昔在黄帝,创制造物。有沮诵、仓颉者,始作书契以代结绳,盖睹鸟迹以兴思也。因而遂滋,则谓之字,有六义焉。一曰指事,上下是也;二曰象形,日月是也;三曰形声,江河是也; 四曰会意,武信是也;五曰转注,老考是也;六曰假借,令长是也。夫指事者,在上为上,在下为下。象形者,日满月亏,象其形也。形声者,以类为形,配以声也。会意者,以戈为武,人言为信是也。转注者,以老为寿考也。假借者,数言同字,其声虽异,文意一也。

  自黄帝至于三代,其文不改。及秦用篆书,焚烧先典,而古文绝矣。汉武帝时鲁恭王坏孔子宅,得《尚书》、《春秋》、《论语》、《孝经》,时人已不复知有古文,谓之科斗书。汉世秘藏,希有见者。魏初传古文者出于邯郸淳,恒祖敬侯写淳《尚书》,后以示淳而淳不别。至正始中,立三字石经,转失淳法,因科斗之名,遂效其形。太康元年,汲县人盗发魏襄王冢,得策书十馀万言,按敬侯所书,犹有仿佛。古书亦有数种,其一卷论楚事者最为工妙,恒窃悦之,故竭愚思以赞其美,愧不足以厕前贤之作,冀以存古人之象焉。古无别名,谓之《字势》云。

  黄帝之史,沮诵仓颉,眺彼鸟迹,始作书契。纪纲万事,垂法立制,帝典用宣,质文着世。 爰暨暴秦,滔天作戾,大道既泯,古文亦灭。魏文好古,世传丘坟,历代莫发,真伪靡分。 大晋开元,弘道敷训,天垂其象,地耀其文。其文乃耀,粲矣其章,因声会意,类物有方。日处君而盈其度,月执臣而亏其旁;云委蛇而上布,星离离以舒光。禾苯*<上艹下尊>以垂颖,山嵯峨而连冈;虫跂跂其若动,鸟飞飞而未扬。观其措笔缀墨,用心精专,势和体均,发止无间。或守正循检,矩折规旋;或方圆靡则,因事制权。其曲如弓,其直如弦。矫然突出,若龙腾于川;渺尔下颓,若雨坠于天。或引笔奋力,若鸿鹄高飞,邈邈翩翩;或纵肆婀娜,若流苏悬羽,靡靡绵绵。是故远而望之,若翔风厉水,清波漪涟;就而察之,有若自然。信黄唐之遗迹,为六艺之范先,籀篆盖其子孙,隶草乃其曾玄。睹物象以致思,非言辞之所宣。

  昔周宣王时史籀始着大篆十五篇,或与古同,或与古异,世谓之籀书也。及平王东迁,诸侯立政,家殊国异,而文字乖形。秦始皇帝初兼天下,承相李斯乃损益之,奏罢不合秦文者。斯作《仓颉篇》,中车府令赵高作《爰历篇》,太史令胡毋政作《博学篇》,皆取史籀大篆,或颇省改,所谓小篆者。或曰下杜人程邈为衙吏,得罪始皇,幽系云阳十年,从狱中改大篆,少者增益,多者损减,方者使圆,圆者使方。奏之始皇,始皇善之,出为御史,使定书。或曰邈定乃隶字也。

  自秦坏古,文有八体:一曰大篆,二曰小篆,三曰刻符,四曰虫书,五曰摹印,六曰署书,七曰殳书,八曰隶书。王莽时,使司空甄酆校文字部,改定古文,复有六书:一曰古文,即孔子壁中书也;二曰奇字,即古文而异者也;三曰篆书,即秦篆书也;四曰佐书,即隶书也;五曰缪篆,所以摹印也;六曰鸟书,所以书幡信也。及汉祭酒许慎撰《说文》,用篆书为正,以为体例,最新,可得而论也。秦时李斯号为工篆,诸山及铜人铭皆斯书也。汉建初中,扶风曹喜善篆,少异于斯,而亦称善。邯郸淳师焉,略究其妙,韦诞师淳而不及。太和中,诞为武都太守,以能书留补侍中、中郎将,善篆,采斯、喜之法,为古今杂形,然精密闲理不如淳也。邕作《篆势》云:

  字画之始,因于鸟迹。苍颉循圣,作则制文。体有六篆,要妙入神。或象龟文,或比龙鳞。纡体效尾,长翅短身。颓若黍稷之垂颖,蕴若虫蛇之棼緼。扬波振激,鹰跱鸟震。延颈协翼,势似凌云。或轻举内投,微本浓末;若绝若连,似露缘丝,凝垂下端。 从者如悬,衡者如编。杳杪邪趣,不方不圆。若行若飞,蚑蚑翾翾(xuān)。远而望之,若鸿鹄群游,络绎迁延。迫而视之,湍漈不可得见,指撝不可胜原。研桑不能数其诘屈,离娄不能睹其隙间。般倕揖让而辞巧,籀诵拱手而韬翰。处篇籍之首目,粲粲彬彬其可观。攡(chī)华艳于纨素,为学艺之范闲。嘉文德之弘蕴,懿作者之莫刊。思字体之俯仰,举大略而论旃。

  秦既用篆,奏事繁多,篆字难成,即令隶人佐书,曰隶字。汉因用之,独符玺、幡信、题署用篆。隶书者,篆之捷也。上谷王次仲始作楷法,至灵帝好书,时多能者,而师宜官为最,大则一字径丈,小则方寸千言,甚矜其能。或时不持钱诣酒家饮,因书其壁,顾观者以酬洒直,计钱足而灭之。每书辄削而焚其捬,梁鹄乃益为捬,而饮之酒,候其醉而窃其柎(fū )。鹄卒以书至选部尚书。宜官后为袁术将,今巨鹿宋子有《耿球碑》,是术所立,其书甚工,云是宜官书也。梁鹄奔刘表,魏武帝破荆州,募求鹄。鹄之为选部也,魏武欲为洛阳令而以为北部尉,故惧而自缚诣门。署军假司马,在秘书书勤书自效,是以今者多有鹄手迹。魏武帝悬着帐中,及以钉壁玩之,以为胜宜官,今宫殿题署多是鹄书。鹄宜为大字,邯郸淳宜为小字,鹄谓淳得次仲法,然鹄之用笔,尽其势矣。鹄弟子毛弘教于秘书,今八分皆弘之法也。汉末有左子邑,小与淳、鹄不同,然亦有名。魏初,有钟、胡二家为行书法,俱学之于刘德升,而钟氏小异,然亦各有其巧,今盛行于世。作《隶势》云:

   鸟迹之变,乃惟佐隶,蠲彼繁文,从此简易。厥用既弘,体象有度,焕若星陈,郁若云布。其大径寻,细不容发,随事从宜,靡有常制。或穹窿恢廓,或栉比针裂,或砥平绳直,或蜿蜒缪戾,或长邪角趣,或规旋矩折。修短相副,异体同势。奋笔轻举,离而不绝。纤波浓点,错落其间。若钟簴(jù 古代挂钟磬的架子上的立柱。)设张,庭燎飞烟。崭岩嵯峨,高下属连,似崇台重宇,层云冠山。远而望之,若飞龙在天;近而察之,心乱目眩,奇姿谲诡,不可胜原。研桑所不能计,宰赐所不能言。何草篆之足算,而斯文之未宣?岂体大之难睹,将秘奥之不传?聊伫思而详观,举大较而论旃。

  汉兴而有草书,不知作者名。至章帝时,齐相杜度,号称善作。后称善作。后有崔瑗、崔寔,亦皆称工。杜氏杀字安,而书体微瘦;崔氏甚得笔势,而结字小疏。弘农张伯英者,而转精其巧,凡家之衣帛,必先书而练之。临池学书,池水尽墨。下笔必为楷则,常曰:“匆匆不暇草书”。寸纸不见遗,至今世尤宝其书,韦仲将谓之“草圣”。伯英弟文舒者,次伯英;又有姜孟颖、梁孔达、田彦和及仲将之徒,皆伯英之弟子,有名于世,然殊不及文舒也。罗叔景、赵元嗣者,与伯英同时,见称于西州,而矜此自与,众颇惑之。故伯英自称:“上比崔、杜不足。下方罗、赵有馀。”河间张超亦有名,然虽与崔氏同州,不如伯英之得其法也。崔瑗作《草势》云:

  书契之兴,始自颉皇;写彼鸟迹,以定文章。爰暨末叶,典籍弥繁。时之多僻,政之多权。官事荒芜,勦其墨翰;惟多佐隶,旧字是删。草书之法,盖又简略;应时谕指,用于卒迫。兼功并用,爱日省力;纯俭之变,岂必古式。观其法象,俯仰有仪;方不中矩,圆不副规。抑左扬右,望之若欹。兽跂鸟跱,志在飞移;狡兔暴骇,将奔未驰。或黝黭(yǎn 黑;昏暗)点¤<左黑右主>,状似连珠,绝而不离。畜怒怫郁,放逸生奇。或凌邃惴栗,若据高临危。旁点邪附,似螳螂而抱枝。绝笔收势,馀綖纠结。若山峰施毒,看隙缘巇;腾蛇赴穴,头没尾垂。是故远而望之,漼焉若注岸奔涯;就而察之,一画不可移。几微要妙,临事从宜。略举大较,仿佛若斯。

[注]卫恒(?-291),西晋书法家。字巨山,河东安邑(今山西省夏县)人。官至黄门侍郎,惠帝时为贾后等所杀。他出生在一个书法世家,祖卫觊、父卫瓘、侄女卫铄都是着名书法家。明代陶宗仪《书史会要》说他:善草、章草、隶、散隶等书体,但见于世的,多是他的草书。唐李嗣真《书后品》称他的书法纵任轻巧,流转风媚,刚健有余,便媚详雅。北宋《淳化阁帖》卷二收有他草书二行。
  《四体书势》1卷,是卫恒的书法理论着作,原文收入《晋书列传第六·卫恒传》,是存世最早和比较可靠的重要书法理论之一,有很高的史料价值。有关当时的各种书体、书史的演变,以及一些书法家代表的情况资料,大都赖此书得以保存。
 

 

Si Ti Shu Shi + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +. The official script of Hengshan grass is the "Si Ti Shu Shi", which says: in the past, he created a creation in the Yellow Emperor. Those who recited Ju and Cangjie began to make deeds instead of tying ropes, covering bird tracks to stimulate thinking. Therefore, Zizi is called the word, which has six meanings. One is pointing things, up and down is also; The second is pictograph, and the sun and moon are also; Third, form and sound, rivers are also; Fourth, understanding, Wu Xin is also; On the fifth day, the old test is also; On the sixth day, he borrowed it and made it long. If a man instructs, the top is the top and the bottom is the bottom. The pictograph is full of days and the moon is waning, just like its shape. Those who form and sound take class as the form and are matched with sound. It is true that those who understand will take the war as a weapon and people's words as faith. Those who change their bets take old age as their birthday test. Those who borrow the same words have different sounds and different meanings. Since the Yellow Emperor, as for the three generations, his writing has not changed. And the Qin Dynasty used seal script to burn the first scriptures, but the ancient prose is unique. During the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, King Lu Gong destroyed Confucius' residence and obtained the book of history, the spring and Autumn period, the Analects of Confucius and the book of filial piety. At that time, people no longer knew that there were ancient texts, which were called kedou books. It's a secret collection of the Han Dynasty. It's a rare sight. In the early Wei Dynasty, those who spread ancient prose came from Handan Chun, and the constant ancestor Jing Hou wrote Chun Shangshu, which later showed Chun but Chun did not say goodbye. In the middle of Zhengshi, the three character stone Scripture was established, and the Chunfa was lost. Because of the name of kedou, it followed its shape. In the first year of Taikang, people in Ji county stole the tomb of King Wei Xiang and got more than 100000 words of the policy book. According to the book of marquis Jing, it was still as if. There are also several kinds of ancient books. One volume of them discusses the affairs of Chu, which is the most skillful and pleasing. Therefore, it exhausts foolish thinking to praise its beauty. It is ashamed that it is not enough to toilet the works of former sages, hoping to preserve the image of the ancients. There was no alias in ancient times, so it was called "Zi Shi" cloud. In the history of the Yellow Emperor, Ju recited Cangjie, overlooking the bird tracks, and began to make a deed. Jigang everything, vertical law system, imperial code with publicity, quality text in the world. Therefore, the violent Qin Dynasty, the towering violence, the great road has disappeared, and the ancient prose has also disappeared. Wei Wenhao is ancient, and it is said that mounds and tombs are not distributed in the past dynasties, and the authenticity is swept away. In the Kaiyuan period of the great Jin Dynasty, the Tao was preached, the sky hung its image and the earth shone its text. Its text is shining and charms its chapters. Because of the sound and understanding, things are square. When the sun is in the position of the monarch, it will gain its degree, and when the moon is in charge of the minister, it will lose its side; Clouds rise on the cloth with a snake, and stars leave with a comfortable light. The grass and benzene * are hanging glumes, and the mountains are steep and connected with hills; If the worm moves, the bird flies without flying. Look at his pen and ink, concentrate on it, balance the potential and body, and stop it. Or abide by the regular inspection, turn the moment and turn the rule; Or the surrounding area, because of the system of power. It is curved like a bow and straight like a string. Straighten out, if the Dragon soars in the river; My heart is falling, if the rain falls on the sky. Or lead the pen to work hard, if the Swan flies high, Miao Miao Pian; Or graceful, if tassels hanging feathers, all the rage. Therefore, if you look at it from a distance, if the wind is blowing and the water is fierce, the clear waves are rippling; It is natural to observe it. The relic of the Yellow Tang Dynasty is the pioneer of the six arts. The seal characters cover his descendants, and the grass is his Zeng Xuan. Seeing objects and images leads to thinking, which is not declared by words. At the time of King Xuan of the Zhou Dynasty, Shi Zhen began to write 15 large seal characters, which were either the same as or different from the ancient ones. It was called Zhen Shu in the world. King Heping moved eastward, and the princes established their governments. Their families and countries were different, and the words were obedient. At the beginning of Qin Shihuang's reign, Li Si, the prime minister, was the leader of the world. After playing, it was not in line with Qin literature. Si wrote "Cangjie chapter", Zhongche mansion ordered Zhao Gao to write "Yuanli chapter", and Taishi ordered Hu Wuzheng to write "erudition chapter". They all took the large seal character of Shi Zhen, or the so-called small seal character. Or Cheng Miao, a yamen official from Xiadu, offended the first emperor and changed the big seal from prison for ten years. The less gain, the more lose, the square make the round, and the round make the square. Play the first emperor, and the first emperor is good at it. It is the imperial historian who makes the book. Or Miao Ding is the official character. Since the Qin Dynasty, there have been eight styles of writing: one is the big seal, the other is the small seal, the third is the carving of symbols, the fourth is the insect script, the fifth is the copying, the sixth is the signing, the seventh is the Shu, and the eighth is the official script. In Wang Mang's time, he asked Sikong Zhen Feng to revise the text department and revise the ancient text. There are six books: one is the ancient text, that is, the book in the wall of Confucius; Second, strange characters, that is, those different from ancient Chinese; Third, seal script, namely the seal script of Qin Dynasty; The fourth is the supplementary script, that is, the official script; Five said Miao Zhuan, so copying is also necessary; The sixth day is the bird book, so the book flag letter is also. Xu Shen wrote Shuowen during the sacrifice of wine in the Han Dynasty, using seal script as the right, thinking that the style is up-to-date and available. In the Qin Dynasty, Lisi was named as the working seal, and the inscriptions of mountains and bronze men were also written by Lisi. Han Jian junior middle school, Fufeng Cao Xishan Zhuan, less different from this, but also known as Shan. Handan's teacher is honest, but Wei's birthday teacher is honest. Taihe Zhong was born as the prefect of Wudu. He was able to retain books to supplement the generals of Zhongzhong and Zhonglang. He was good at seal characters and the method of gathering Si and Xi. It is a complex form in ancient and modern times. However, precision and leisure are not as good as chunye. Yong's Zhuan Shi said: the beginning of calligraphy and painting is due to bird tracks. Cang Jie followed the saint and made articles. The body has six seal characters, which should be wonderful and fascinating. Or tortoise, or dragon scale. It has a long tail, long wings and short body. It is decadent like the drooping glume of millet, and it is contained like the glume of an insect and a snake. The waves vibrate and the eagles and birds vibrate. Extending the neck and wings, it looks like Lingyun. Or lift it lightly and throw it in the end; If it is absolutely connected, it looks like an exposed edge wire, condensing and hanging at the lower end. Those who follow are like hanging, and those who weigh are like weaving. There is no evil interest, neither square nor round. If you walk, if you fly, you can fly (Xu) ā n)。 If you look at it from a distance, it is like a group of swans swimming in an endless stream. If you are forced to look at it, you can't see it. It means "you can't overcome the original". Yan Sang can't count his heckles, and he can't see his gap from Lou. Like bowing to yield and saying skillfully, reciting bow hands and Tao Han. At the head of the book, charm and Binbin are considerable. 攡 (CH) ī) Gorgeous and plain, it is the leisure of learning arts. Jia Wen's virtue is great, and Yi's author's Mo magazine. Think about the pitching of the font and talk about it roughly. Since the Qin Dynasty used seal characters, there were many things to play, and the seal characters were difficult to be formed, that is, the official script was called official script. In Han Dynasty, it is used only for seal, flag letter and seal. Those who write official script have the advantage of seal script. Cizhong, the king of Shanggu, began to write regular script. When it came to the good book of Lingdi, he was the one with many abilities, and the most suitable teachers were the most. The largest one was the diameter of a word, and the smaller one was the thousand words of a square inch, which was very reserved for his ability. Or do not hold money to drink in a restaurant. Because of the wall of the book, the viewer sprinkles straight with reward, counts enough money and dies. Every book is often cut and burned, and Liang Hu is beneficial for it. When he drinks the wine, he will steal it when he is drunk (f ū )。 Hu died with a book to choose a minister. Yuan Shu will be the empress of Yi Guan. Today, Julu Song Zi has the "Geng Qiu stele", which is established by Shu. Its book is very skilled, and the cloud is the book of Yi Guan. Liang Hu ran to Liu Biao, and Emperor Wu of Wei broke through Jingzhou and raised Hu. Hu is also the choice of the Ministry. Wei Wu wants to be the order of Luoyang and thinks he is the Northern Wei. Therefore, he is afraid and binds himself to the door. The army's fake Sima, who works diligently in the Secretary's book, has a lot of swans in his handwriting. Emperor Wu of Wei hung the tent and played with nails on the wall. He thought it was appropriate to win officials. Today, most of the questions in the palace are Hu books. Hu should be in big characters, Handan Chun should be in small characters, and Hu means that Chun won the secondary law. However, Hu's pen makes full use of its potential. Hu disciple Mao Hong taught the secretary. Today, eight percent of them are Hongzhi's Dharma. In the late Han Dynasty, there was Zuo Ziyi, which was different from Chun and Hu, but it was also famous. At the beginning of Wei Dynasty, there were two schools of calligraphy, Zhong and Hu. They all learned from Liu Desheng, while Zhong's family was slightly different, but they also had their own tricks. Now they are popular in the world. "Li Shi" said: the change of bird tracks is only the assistant Li, and the complicated text is simple from then on. Jue is magnificent, with a moderate body image, glowing like a star and Chen, and Yu like a cloud cloth. It can be found in a big way, but can't be found in a small way. It is appropriate to follow the matter, and there is a regular system in the world. Or the vault is broad, or the rows of needles are cracked, or the flat rope is straight, or the winding is Muri, or the evil horn is interesting, or the rules are regular and crooked. Short phase pair, allogeneic homology. Lift the pen and leave it. The fiber waves are thick and scattered. Ruo Zhong Zhen (a column on the rack of ancient bells and chimes.) Set Zhang, the court is burning and smoke is flying. The rock is steep and steep, and the high and low are connected. It looks like Chongtai Chongyu and stratus cloud Guanshan. If you look at it from a distance, it's like a flying dragon in the sky; If you observe it near, you will feel confused and dazzled, and your strange posture will be treacherous. You can't overcome the original. Research mulberry institute can't plan, slaughter gift institute can't say. What is the sufficient calculation of Cao Zhuan and the undeclared prose? Is it difficult to see the great body and not pass on the mystery? Chatting, thinking and watching in detail, holding a big comparison. Hanxing has cursive script. I don't know the author's name. At the time of emperor Zhang, Qi Xiangdu was known as a good writer. Later called good work. Later there were Cui yuan and Cui Shi, also known as Gong. Du Shuan's character is thin and micro; Cui's handwriting is very good, and the knot is small and sparse. Zhang Boying, who is a great farmer, turns his skill into refinement. All clothes and silk of the family must be written and practiced first. Learn from the pond, and the pond water makes the ink. Writing must be regular rules. It is often said that "there is no time for cursive writing in a hurry". An inch of paper is missing. Up to now, the world has treasured his book, which Wei Zhong will call "the sage of grass". Bo Ying's younger brother, Wen Shu, second Bo Ying; There are also disciples of Jiang Mengying, Liang Konda, Tian Yanhe and general Zhong, all of whom are disciples of Boying. They are famous in the world, but they are not as good as Wen Shuye. Luo Shujing and Zhao Yuan's descendants, together with Bo Ying, are well-known in Xizhou, and they are very confused about this. So Boying claimed: "the upper part is less than Cui and Du. The lower part is Luo and Zhao Youyu." Hejian Zhang Chao is also famous. However, although he is in the same state as Cui, he is not as good as Boying. Cui yuan's "grass potential" said: the rise of deeds began from emperor Jie; Write the bird's tracks to determine the article. Therefore, it is the last leaf, and the classics are numerous. There are many secluded times and many powers in politics. If the official affairs are deserted, wipe out Mohan; But many Zuo Li, the old word is deleted. The method of cursive writing is simple and simple; It refers to timely instructions, which are used to force soldiers. Both work and use, love day and save effort; The change of pure thrift does not need to be ancient. Observe its Dharma image and have instrument in pitching; Square out of the middle moment, round out of the sub gauge. Restrain the left and raise the right, and look at it as if it were a bird. Animals and birds are determined to fly; The cunning rabbit is frightened and will not gallop. Or tetrahedron (y) ǎ N black; Dim) dots, like beads, never leave. The animal is angry and depressed, and the rest is strange. Or Ling Shuo, if high in danger. A little evil is attached to the side, like a mantis holding a branch. The end of the writing ended, and the rest was tangled. If the mountain peak is poisoned, look at the edge of the gap; The flying snake goes to the cave without hanging its head and tail. Therefore, if you look at it from a distance, how can you note the shore and run to the end; As you can see, a painting cannot be moved. It's better to be subtle, and it's better to do things in the near future. Slightly larger, as if Jos. [note] Wei Heng (? - 291), a calligrapher in the Western Jin Dynasty. Word giant mountain, Hedong Anyi (now Xia County, Shanxi Province) people. When the official came to Huangmen to serve the emperor, he was killed by Empress Jia and others. He was born in a calligraphy family. Zu Weiqian, father weipeng and niece Wei Shuo are all famous calligraphers. Tao Zongyi of the Ming Dynasty said in the book history meeting that he was good at cursive, Zhangcao, Li, Sanli and other calligraphy styles, but most of them are his cursive calligraphy. Tang Li Sizhen's "postscript product" said that his calligraphy was light, beautiful, vigorous and elegant. There are two lines of his cursive script in Volume 2 of Chunhua Pavilion post in the Northern Song Dynasty. Volume 1 of Si Ti Shu Shi is Wei Heng's calligraphy theory work. The original text is included in the sixth biography of Wei Heng in Jin Dynasty. It is one of the earliest and more reliable important Calligraphy Theories in the world and has high historical value. Most of the information about the evolution of various calligraphy styles and history at that time, as well as the situation of some Calligraphers' representatives, depends on this book.
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