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【文论精选】视觉中的历史画卷从“画述百年”看山东主题性美术创作

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为庆祝中国共产党成立100周年,不断加强学党史、感党恩、跟党走的坚定信念,展现建党百年来的伟大成就,山东美术馆策划并主办了“画述百年——山东美术馆馆藏革命历史题材作品展” ,以丰富的馆藏作品展示党的光辉历程。此次展览共展出作品34件,涵盖国、油、版、雕、水彩/粉等画种,其中不乏主题性美术创作项目推出的现实题材作品。展览作为一个整体性的视觉载体,浓缩历史,诠释精神,极具民族史诗性的艺术品格。

一、题材丰富铺展党史画卷

“画述百年”展览均为极具震撼力的大型作品,选题角度涵盖了中国共产党的成立以来的重要历史,尤其呈现厚重广博的山东土地上近百年来发生的重要历史事件,勾勒出风起云涌的大时代,题材的丰富和广泛包蕴了历史时空的跨度与交织的现实,既有对革命年代的缅怀,也有对社会主义建设和改革开放的歌颂,图像鲜活,题材典型,直抵人心。

展览以反映革命历史背景为顺序,分为中国共产党的创建和投身大革命洪流、全民族抗日战争的中流砥柱、夺取新民主主义革命全国性胜利、新中国的成立和社会主义建设四大板块。史峰、张新征、郭磊、张伟的《五四运动在山东》描绘了山东各界人士响应五四爱国运动的场景;韦辛夷的《鸿蒙初辟》,王磐德周群的《寒夜星光——1921·济南马克思学说研究会》,池灏的《王尽美与邓恩铭》塑造了山东党组织组织者和领导者的光辉形象。这些作品展现那个新旧交替的年代背景下,青年志士探索真理,求亡图存,以思想之光唤醒民族的觉醒。张志民的《将军出山》反映了1937年陈毅在江西南部坚持游击战争,不畏艰险,与国民党赣南当局谈判,共同抗日的历史。刘书军的《八路军115师入鲁》表现的是老百姓们见到罗荣桓率115师部队到来时激动热烈的场景;海波李兆虬《沂蒙红嫂》,张志强《马本斋与回民支队》等等,分别从不同的题材和角度展开抗日战争的历史画卷,绘就了开天辟地的峥嵘岁月,犹如洪钟大吕般振奋了民族精神的雄浑、刚毅和强健。在夺取新民主主义革命全国性胜利的部分,路璋陈国力、张志强的《刘邓大军过黄河》,李前的《准备出发——记山东八路军挺进东北》,崔开玺的《支援前线》,陈国力的《济南战役》,马蕾、张彩翼的《孟良崮》均是宏大的场景表现战役冲锋的磅礴气势;秦胜洲的《莱芜大捷 》以充满力量的刀刻痕迹展现了呐喊与前进的激烈氛围;孙成河孙笑运张纯彦、徐正欣的国画作品《黎明·山东干部南下》与郎钺的雕塑作品《南下》均反映了1949年前后山东地方干部跟随人民解放军南下支援开辟新解放区。王建峰的《颁发土地证——山东解放区的土改》,丁万里的《山东解放区大生产运动》表现了中国共产党指导抗日根据地军民开展生产建设运动,传递了积极向上的精神与力量。王永国、徐学杰、王刚《八千女兵赴新疆》,杨克山《战井喷》展现了新的时代精神召唤下,改天换地的魄力与一往直前的勇气;陈国力《党的好干部--焦裕禄》与刘德润李燕《希望之路-孔繁森》突出了“大写的人”,庄严又不乏亲切、崇高,通过突出重要人物的精神和火热的建设场景颂扬民族英雄和民族伟绩。王敬易 、徐永生的《山东的农村改革》,张萍、刘东方、王丽丽的《山东新农村建设》,孙春龙的《山东半岛蓝色经济区建设》以刚劲的笔调和遒劲的风骨表现如火如荼的改革和国家发展的日新月异。

创作者由衷而发,尊重历史史实和关键人物,在研究历史的基础上,加以艺术性发挥,以独到的理解与构思集中展现了沉甸甸的故事,将中国共产党的历史鲜活地呈现开来,寓宏观的把握于精微的刻画。在这个过程中,艺术通过个人的理解构建一段浓缩的而又全方位的视觉艺术史,将历史态度和国家意志融化在作品中。

二、立意创新的图像抒写

党的一百年历史,波澜壮阔,距离我们并不遥远。从艺术的角度来说,事件与人物的关系历来是历史题材美术创作的关键,对中国共产党的百年历程的展示,突出了特定社会活动环境中的形象塑造问题,亦即艺术家通过塑造典型环境中的典型人物,选取激动人心的历史瞬间,通过人物组合和环境表现恰当地烘托出引人入胜的具体情境,这是重大历史题材最为经典化的表现方式,最大限度地建筑了视觉和心理的真实。

杨绍路的《铁道游击队》展现了戏剧性冲突的瞬间,画面以登上列车的战士们矫健的身影为主体,潜藏着“智取”与“游击”的含义,人物沉浸在月光朦胧,雾气弥漫的背景中,形成悄无声息又紧张冲突的张力氛围,暗示了一场激烈的战斗即将上演。刘大力的雕塑作品《铁道游击队》同样以突出的运动感和视觉节奏感展现了道游击队员急速行进的场面。“画述百年”所展出的作品不限于图解历史而是事件背后广阔的时代背景,以具体的历史事件和故事为支撑,从有时间跨度的史料中选取具有转折性、代表性人物事件,在大小不一的场面和造型组合,在主次动静、写实与写意,正面描写与侧面映射之间,创新立意,创作手法多元丰富,通过巧妙的构思使其自然而然地显露出整体布局中的亮点,完成叙述结构方式与艺术语言的新变。

韦辛夷的《鸿蒙初辟》跳出了纯粹的宏大场面的呈现,而注重精神层面的开掘。作品描绘的陈独秀因躲避反动军阀政府的迫害,欲从北京秘密迁移天津时发生的场景。1920年李大钊护送陈独秀出京,两人在骡车上商量建立中国共产党的场景。画家继承了传统笔墨精华,采取新的表现技法,上为天,下为地,中间为人的三才构图,中国共产党创始人的伟大形象从大地上冉冉升起,在黑色的背景上中间一团光亮释放出来,氤氲在天地间,突出了中国共产党诞生这一事件的伟大历史意义。

李学明的《山东抗日根据地建设(沂蒙丰碑)》 以“沂蒙支前”为角度展现了山东抗日根据地建设的一个缩影,采取一种超时空象征性构图的叠合与错位,以全景式构图,打破了时空局限,利用平面化的依次叠加,塑造了静中有动、动中有静的三百多个人物,在场面的刻画以及特定环境的烘托上采取符合当代审美的处理方法,把结构性语言和恢宏的实力深度结合在一起,以中国画的笔墨语言有效地赋予了深层的历史影像感。

展览展出的作品以艺术性的再创造,还原题材发生的经典时刻,或以精湛的技法把控题材宏大的场景,或以现代艺术观念和语言,突破单一的现实主义表现模式,恰当地把握了历史真实与艺术创造之间的关系。在将历史画面视觉化的过程中,以精神统领画笔,从而深化了历史的内涵和文化含量,极大地提升了历史主题的表现深度,这种艺术的感染力来自文化之集成,也就是艺术家对历史事件、人物、背景乃至当下意义的理解,在诠释、提炼、浓缩中释放出情感的能量,使艺术最终成为历史的载体,时代精神的象征。

三、永恒的精神动力

“画述百年——山东美术馆馆藏革命历史题材作品展”无疑浓缩了艺术家个人以及这个时代对于历史的认知与理解,通过这种认识与理解重现历史现场,作品烙印着每个时代的人文特征与艺术家个体对历史的感悟与把握。正如克罗齐所言,一切历史都是当代史,是历史的艺术再创造,是历史事件的艺术化。它是美学性的,从“历史的真实”迈向更概括、更典型的“艺术的真实”。

单应桂的《逃亡——童年的回忆之一》是积累了深厚的情感后有感而发的作品,记录了作者随母亲流浪在鲁西平原地区上的真实场景,画家以群像展现的方式和平行中心的构图展开了一幅半封建半殖民地状态下人民背井离乡、扶老携幼辗转行进的画面,为我们撕开了历史的一角,留下了永恒的记忆,撼人心魄。在笔墨语言上从写实的刻画转换为具有象征意味的概括抒写,情感通过简练、平实的笔法表现出来,完成了从内容形式到精神层面的挖掘。

路璋的《夜·黑沉沉的夜》描绘了抗日战争时期的场景,也是作者童年的回忆,是严格的现实主义创作。画家用一组栏杆,刻画了视死如归、不畏生死的革命者,围栏的另一面是一群流浪的人群和天真无邪的孩童,两组人物形象的安排使题材获得了深层的揭示,既符合生活的真实又具有造型上的感染力,显现出纪念碑式的悲剧与伟岸,历史的瞬间获得了永恒。

王晓晖的《霜晨》描绘了苍茫的大地上,三位女战士在风霜交织的帷幕中缓缓走来,没有人知道他们来自哪里,他们是谁,又到哪里去,只剩下坦然的步伐和坚毅的眼神,透露着永不放弃的理想和信念,将平民英雄加以抒情化、浪漫化,探讨社会历史大潮下的个体价值与角色使命,进一步成为精神性的内在表达,穿透心灵。

“画述百年”也展现出齐鲁文脉下的重大历史题材创作,以特有的语言气质和叙事方式展现民族史诗,把那种刚健自强、不畏牺牲的献身精神、大公无私的奉献精神、勤劳睿智的创造精神、追逐梦想的攀登精神淋漓尽致地展现出来。总的来说,在表现语言上不强调激烈的战争或强大的视觉冲击力,而多采用蕴藉浪漫的现实主义的手法,注重内在的精神品质,以一当十地将战争与和平,生与死之间的人世沉浮,选择的危急关头,人立足于天地与自然的气迈高蹈赋予思想性的提炼,以深沉的色调表现历史的沧桑,背景与人物凝结成有机的整体烘托内在情感的气氛,把中国传统文化精神中的委婉在宏大的格局中转化为质朴与庄严的力量,而这正是我们传统审美中最智慧,最耐人寻味的部分。

这些饱含深情、激发斗志、鼓舞精神的作品绘就了气象万千、壮阔恢宏的时代画卷,集中展示了当代画家对于党的历史的回忆、认识与情怀的抒发,唤起了人们有深度的思考力,民族凝聚力和向心力,所蕴含的人文思想与崇高精神,激发观者超越个人关怀的大意识、大格局,更好发挥“成教化,助人伦”在当下社会中的作用和意义,以美育人、以美化人,充实我们这个时代的精神。在注重个人价值展现的今天,对于展开一个国家和民族的集体记忆,以艺术的方式推进民族理想与人文现实,播撒思想的火花和真知灼见具有重要的意义。因为人类历史进程背后的思想与智慧始终是推动国家与民族进步的力量源泉。相信,随着时间的流逝,这些作品也将越来越呈现其中国社会变迁的现代史意义和美术史意义。

(作者单位:山东省书画学会编辑部)

 

 

 

In order to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China, constantly strengthen the firm belief of learning party history, feeling party kindness and following the party, and show the great achievements of the party in the past 100 years, Shandong Art Museum planned and hosted the "painting and narration of a century - exhibition of works on revolutionary history in the collection of Shandong Art Museum", which showed the glorious course of the party with rich collection works. A total of 34 works were exhibited in this exhibition, covering national, oil, plate, carving, watercolor / powder and other paintings, including realistic works launched by thematic art creation projects. As an integral visual carrier, the exhibition condenses history, interprets spirit and has the artistic character of national epic

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1、 Rich themes spread the scroll of party history < / P > < P style = "text indent: 2em;" > The exhibition of "painting a hundred years" is a large-scale work with great shock. The topic selection angle covers the important history since the founding of the Communist Party of China, especially presents the important historical events that have taken place in the past 100 years on the thick and broad land of Shandong, outlines the turbulent era, and the rich and extensive topic materials contain the span of historical time and space and the intertwined reality, including the remembrance of the revolutionary era, There are also praises for socialist construction and reform and opening up, with vivid images and typical themes, reaching the hearts of the people

In order to reflect the historical background of the revolution, the exhibition is divided into four parts: the founding of the Communist Party of China and its involvement in the great revolution, the mainstay of the national war of resistance against Japan, winning the national victory of the new democratic revolution, the founding of new China and socialist construction. The May 4th Movement in Shandong by Shi Feng, Zhang Xinzheng, Guo Lei and Zhang Wei depicts the scene of people from all walks of life in Shandong responding to the May 4th Patriotic Movement; Wei Xinyi's "the beginning of Hongmeng", Wang Pande and Zhou Qun's "cold night Starlight - 1921 · Jinan Marxist Theory Research Association", and Chi Hao's "Wang Jinmei and Deng Enming" have shaped the glorious image of the organizer and leader of Shandong party organization. These works show that under the background of the alternation of the old and the new, young people with lofty ideals explore the truth, seek death and survival, and awaken the awakening of the nation with the light of thought. Zhang Zhimin's "general out of the mountain" reflects Chen Yi's history of adhering to guerrilla war in southern Jiangxi in 1937, fearing difficulties and dangers, negotiating with the Kuomintang authorities in southern Jiangxi and jointly resisting Japan. Liu Shujun's "the 115th division of the Eighth Route Army into Shandong" shows the people's excitement when they see Luo Ronghuan leading the troops of the 115th division coming; Yue Haibo and Li zhaoqiu's "Yimeng red sister-in-law", Zhang Zhiqiang's "Ma Benzhai and the Hui detachment" and so on unfolded the historical picture of the Anti Japanese war from different themes and angles, painted the epoch-making era, and inspired the vigor, fortitude and strength of the national spirit like Hong Zhong Da Lv. In the part of winning the national victory of the new democratic revolution, Lu Zhang, Chen Guoli and Zhang Zhiqiang's "Liu Deng's army crosses the Yellow River", Li Qian's "ready to go - on the Eighth Route Army of Shandong marching into the northeast", Cui Kaixi's "support the front line", Chen Guoli's "Jinan campaign", and Ma Lei and Zhang Caiyi's "Meng Lianggu" all show the magnificent momentum of the campaign charge; Qin Shengzhou's Laiwu victory shows the fierce atmosphere of shouting and progress with powerful knife marks; Sun Chenghe, sun Xiaoyun, Zhang Chunyan and Xu Zhengxin's traditional Chinese painting "dawn · Shandong cadres going south" and Lang Yue's sculpture "going south" all reflect that around 1949, Shandong local cadres followed the people's Liberation Army to support the opening up of a new liberated area. Wang Jianfeng's "issuing land certificates - land reform in the liberated areas of Shandong" and Ding Wanli's "mass production movement in the liberated areas of Shandong" show that the Communist Party of China guides the army and people in the Anti Japanese base areas to carry out production and construction movement, and transmits the positive spirit and strength. Wang Yongguo, Xu Xuejie and Wang Gang "eight thousand female soldiers go to Xinjiang" and Yang Keshan "war blowout" show the courage to change the world and move forward under the call of the new spirit of the times; Chen Guoli's "good cadre of the party - Jiao Yulu" and Liu Derun and Li Yan's "road of hope - Kong Fansen" highlight the "capital people", which are solemn, kind and noble. They celebrate national heroes and national achievements by highlighting the spirit of important people and hot construction scenes. The rural reform of Shandong by Wang Jingyi and Xu Yongsheng, the new rural construction of Shandong by Zhang Ping, Liu Dongfang and Wang Lili, and the construction of blue economic zone of Shandong Peninsula by sun Chunlong show the full swing reform and the rapid change of national development with vigorous style and style

The creator is sincere, respects historical facts and key figures, gives artistic play to them on the basis of studying history, focuses on the heavy story with unique understanding and conception, presents the history of the Communist Party of China vividly, and combines the macro grasp with the subtle depiction. In this process, art constructs a concentrated and all-round history of visual art through personal understanding, and melts the historical attitude and national will into the works

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2、 Creative image description < / P > < P style = "text indent: 2em;" > The party's one hundred year history is magnificent and not far from us. From the perspective of art, the relationship between events and characters has always been the key to the artistic creation of historical themes. The display of the Centennial course of the Communist Party of China highlights the problem of image shaping in the specific social activity environment, that is, artists create typical people and objects in a typical environment, select exciting historical moments, and appropriately set off fascinating specific situations through character combination and environmental performance, This is the most classic expression of major historical themes, which maximizes the visual and psychological reality

For example, Yang Shaolu's "railway guerrillas" shows the moment of dramatic conflict. The picture takes the vigorous figure of the soldiers who boarded the train as the main body, and hides the meaning of "resourcefulness" and "guerrilla". The characters are immersed in the background of moonlight and fog, forming a tension atmosphere of quiet and tense conflict, suggesting that a fierce battle is about to take place. Liu Dali's sculpture "railway guerrillas" also shows the scene of the rapid progress of the road guerrillas with a prominent sense of movement and visual rhythm. The works exhibited in "painting for a hundred years" are not limited to the illustration of history, but the broad background behind the events. Supported by specific historical events and stories, the turning and representative character events are selected from the historical materials with a time span. In the combination of scenes and shapes of different sizes, between primary and secondary movements, realism and freehand brushwork, positive description and side mapping, they are innovative and rich in creative techniques, Through ingenious conception, it naturally reveals the highlights in the overall layout, and completes the new changes of narrative structure and artistic language

Wei Xinyi's "the beginning of Hongmeng" jumps out of the presentation of pure grand scenes and pays attention to the excavation of spiritual level. The work depicts the scene of Chen Duxiu secretly moving from Beijing to Tianjin to avoid the persecution of the reactionary warlord government. In 1920, Li Dazhao escorted Chen Duxiu out of Beijing. They discussed the scene of establishing the Communist Party of China on a mule cart. The painter inherited the essence of traditional ink and brush, and adopted new performance techniques. The "three talents" composition of "heaven above, earth below and man in the middle" highlights the great historical significance of the birth of the Communist Party of China. The great image of the founder of the Communist Party of China rises slowly from the earth, and a mass of light is released in the middle on the black background

The construction of Shandong Anti Japanese base area (Yimeng Monument) by Li Xueming shows a microcosm of the construction of Shandong Anti Japanese base area from the perspective of "supporting the front in Yimeng". It adopts a kind of superposition and dislocation of super space-time symbolic composition, breaks the limitation of time and space with panoramic composition, and uses the sequential superposition of planarization to shape more than 300 characters who are moving in silence and static in motion, In the depiction of the scene and the contrast of the specific environment, we adopt the treatment method in line with the contemporary aesthetics, combine the structural language with the magnificent strength depth, and effectively endow the deep sense of historical image with the pen and ink language of Chinese painting

The works exhibited in the exhibition use artistic re creation to restore the classic moment of the occurrence of the theme, or use exquisite techniques to control the grand scene of the theme, or use modern artistic concepts and language to break through the single realistic expression mode, and properly grasp the relationship between historical reality and artistic creation. In the process of visualizing the historical picture, he commands the brush with spirit, which deepens the connotation and cultural content of history and greatly improves the expression depth of historical theme. The appeal of this art comes from the integration of culture, that is, the artist's understanding of historical events, characters, background and even current significance, releases emotional energy in interpretation, refining and concentration, and makes art finally become the carrier of history, A symbol of the spirit of the times

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3、 Eternal spiritual power < / P > < P style = "text indent: 2em;" > "Painting a hundred years - Exhibition of works on revolutionary history collected by Shandong Art Museum" undoubtedly condenses the artist's personal understanding and understanding of history in this era. Through this understanding and understanding, the historical scene is reproduced. The works are branded with the humanistic characteristics of each era and the artist's individual perception and grasp of history. As Croce said, all history is contemporary history, the artistic re creation of history and the artistry of historical events. It is aesthetic, from "historical truth" to more general and typical "artistic truth"

Shan Yinggui's "escape - one of the memories of childhood" is a work of deep emotion. It records the real scene of the author wandering on the plain of Western Shandong with his mother. The painter unfolds a picture of people leaving their homes and supporting the old and young in a semi feudal and semi colonial state by means of group portraits and composition of parallel centers, tearing apart a corner of history and leaving eternal memories for us, Shocking. In terms of pen and ink language, it has changed from realistic depiction to general expression with symbolic meaning. Emotion is expressed through concise and plain writing, and the excavation from content and form to spiritual level is completed

Lu Zhang's "night · dark night" depicts the scene during the Anti Japanese war. It is also the author's childhood memory. It is a strict realistic creation. The painter used a group of railings to depict the revolutionaries who look back on death and are not afraid of life and death. On the other side of the fence are a group of wandering people and innocent children. The arrangement of the two groups of characters makes the theme deeply revealed, which is not only in line with the reality of life, but also has the appeal of modeling, showing the tragedy and greatness of monumental style, and the moment of history is eternal

Wang Xiaohui's frost morning depicts

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